About Engineering Branches (Naval Architecture)
Naval architects design safe, useful or beautiful ships and boats. The basic goal of a naval architect is to assure that the vessel will survive any reasonable weather when handled with reasonable prudence, and yet still perform its function efficiently.
Maritime safety is concerned with four major items. The strength of the hull and superstructure, the instantaneous stability, ultimate stability, and equipment for safety and navigation.Instantaneous stability is a measure of how the vessel's buoyancy is distributed. Some useful measures are the angles of roll (tilting to the side) or pitch (nose down or up) per unit of windspeed, or ton of misplaced cargo.
Ultimate stability is concerned with where the vessel's center of gravity has been located. It measures the angles of pitch or roll at which the vessel capsizes and cannot recover. Sometimes this is more than 180 degrees. Most vessels can recover from rolls of 100 degrees (a knockdown), and pitches of 30 degrees. Larger ships can be overstressed by their own weight at extreme pitches.
Modern navigational equipment also include GPS, to locate one's position in the trackless ocean. To navigate tight passages in fog or darkness, and avoid other vessels, radar is useful. To avoid shallows and reefs, sonar is also useful.
See Also : -