EAMCET : Agriculture & Medicine (AM) Syllabus
Subject : BOTANY
I. INTRODUCTION: Origin, development and scope of Botany -
Classification of plant kingdom - Branches of Botany: Morphology, Cytology,
Embryology, Palynology, Taxonomy, Physiology, Ecology, Palaeobotany, Genetics,
Phytogeography, Phycology, Mycology,Lichenology, Bryology, Pteriodology,
Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology - Parts of angiospermic plant
II. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY: (a)Vegetative morphology: Root: Root
system; Types, Functions, Modification of roots (Velamen roots, Photosynthetic
roots, Respiratory roots, Parasitic roots, Storage roots and nodular roots) -
Stem: characteristics and functions of the stem; Modifications of stem: Aerial:
Tendril, Thorn, Hook, Phylloclade, Restiratory roots, Tuberous stem and Bulbil;
Sub-aerial: Runner, Stolon, Sucker & Offset, Underground: Rhizome, Corm, Stem
tuber & Bulb - Leaf: Parts of Leaf, Types, Functions and Parts of leaves,
Venation, Phyllotaxy, Leaf modifications: - tendrils, spines, scale leaves,
phyllode,reproductive & trap leaves. (b)Reproductive morphology:Inflorescence:
Introduction, Types of Inflorescence - Racemose, Cymose and Special Types
Flower: Parts of a typical flower: Structure, Sex distribution and symmetry of
flower, position of gynoecium. Detailed description of flower: Prianth, Calyx,
Corolla, aestivation, Androecium – Parts, fixation and dehiscence of anther,
length of stamens, union of stamens, Gynoecium – number of carpels, fusion of
carples, ovary – number of locules , placentation, types of styles, Stigma
III. REPRODUCTION IN ANGIOSPERMS: Introduction – Sporophytic
and Gametophytic stages - Structure of an Anther; Microsporogenesis, Structure
of a pollen grain and development of male gametophyte Ovule – Structure and
Types; megasporogenesis - development and structure of embryosac - Pollination:
Types of pollination, self and cross-pollination, contrivances for cross
pollination and self pollination, agents of cross pollination. Fertilization –
Process, Post - fertilization changes; Seed structure (Dicot & Monocot), and
seed germination (epigeal, hypogeal & vivipary) - Fruits: Classification; False
fruits and true fruits - Simple fruits (fleshy fruits – berry, pome, pepo,
hesperidium, drupe; Dry fruits – dehiscent- legume, septicidal capsule,
septifragal capsule, loculicidal capsule; Indehiscent fruits – caryopsis,
cypsela, nut; schizocarpic – lomentum, schizocarp); Aggregate and Multiple
IV. PLANT TAXONOMY: Introduction – Alpha and Omega taxonomy;
Aspects of taxonomy – Identification – Flora, herbaria, botanical gardens (RBG –
Kew, IBG – Kolkata, NBG – Lucknow); Nomenclature, Classification – Types, Units
and a brief account of Bentham & Hooker’s system. Study of the following
families - Malvaceae - Fabaceae - Solanaceae - Liliaceae.
V. CELL BIOLOGY: Introduction, Techniques of Cell Biology –
microscopy (light, electron, fluorescent, phase contrast, SEM, TEM – only uses),
Separation techniques - Ultrastructure of plant cell (Eukaryotic cell -
Structure of cell wall and cell membrane, Protoplasm, cytoplasm, Plastids,
mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi complex, lysosomes,
peroxisomes and glyoxysomes, vacuoles and Nucleus). – Chromosomes -
Introduction, structure (light microscopic study), classification, functions and
nucleosome model) - Nucleic acids - Cell Division : Cell Cycle, Mitosis and
VI. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF PLANTS: Tissues – Types (Meristematic
and Permanent ) and functions - Internal structure of Dicot root (Primary) and
Monocot root - Internal structure of Dicot stem (Primary) and Monocot stem -
Internal structure of leaf (Dicot and Monocot) - Secondary growth in dicot stem.
VII. PLANT ECOLOGY: Introduction - Plant communities –
Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes; Ecological adaptations (Morphological &
Anatomical) of Hydrophytes and Xerophytes.
VIII GENETICS: Introduction - Mendel’s Principles –
Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross, Back cross and Test cross, Concept of probability
in relation to Genetics - Linkage and crossing over - Mutations.
IX. PLANT KINGDOM: Introduction - Spirogyra – distribution
and habitat, thallus structure, cell structure, reproduction– vegetative,
asexual, sexual, life cycle - Rhizopus – distribution and habitat, structure of
mycelium and hypha, reproduction – vegetative, asexual, sexual, life cycle,
sexuality in Rhizopus - Funaria: distribution and habitat, external morphology
of the gametophore, anatomy of the stem, reproduction – vegetative and sexual,
sporophyte, protonema, life cycle - Pteris: distribution and habitat, Morphology
of the sporophyte, anatomy of the Rhizome, vegetative, asexual and sexual
reproduction, Embryo, life cycle - Cycas: distribution and habitat, Morphology
of the sporophyte, anatomy of the coralloid root and leaflet, Reproduction,
Embryo, Seed, life cycle. X. MICROBIOLOGY: Introduction and importance of
microbiology - Bacteria – Discovery, Distribution, sizes, shapes, Gram stain (in
brief), structure of cell, nutrition, reproduction –asexual (binary fission),
sexual – Conjugation (F+ and Fonly), transformation and transduction (only
definition, discoverer and example for transformation and transduction),
economic importance – beneficial (Agriculture, Industry, Medicine,
Biotechnology), harmful (spoilage of food, plants, human and animal diseases) -
Viruses – historical account, types, structure (TMV and T4 details), general
account of sizes, shapes, replication (Lytic and Lysogenic cycles). Plant
diseases caused by viruses, transmission of viruses and control of viral
XI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY : Introduction (a) WATER RELATIONS OF
PLANTS: Absorption of water – Introduction, soil water, water potential,
Diffusion, Imbibition, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Mechanism of absorption of water-
Ascent of Sap: Definition, Cohesion – Tension theory - Transpiration :
Definition, SPAC and types of transpiration, mechanism of stomatal movement,
factors, significance, Antitranspirants.
(b) NUTRITION IN PLANTS: Introduction, types of nutrition
(symbiosis, parasitism, chemotrophism, autotrophism)’ - Mineral nutrition –
Introduction, soil as source, criteria of essentiality, importance of macro and
micro elements, ion absorption – passive and active (carrier concept),
Biofertilizers (c) METABOLISM: Enzymes – introduction, properties, IUB
classification, mechanism of enzyme action (lock & key theory),enzyme inhibition
- Photosynthesis - Definition, pigments, structural organization of chloroplast,
Mechanism of Photosynthesis – Light reactions - Hill reaction, Emerson’s
Enhancement Effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton translocation,
photophosphorylation, Carbon assimilation - C3, C4 pathways, Factors,
Photorespiration, Blackman’s law - Respiration – definition, Types, Mechanism of
aerobic and anaerobic respiration, Alcohol fermentation, Respiratory quotient (R.Q).
Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, Biological nitrogen fixation (Symbiotic,
Non-symbiotic); Genetic code, Biosynthesis of Proteins - Plant growth & its
regulators: Growth curve; introduction to growth regulators, physiological
effects and applications-Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and
Ethylene; Photoperiodism and Vernalization.
XII. PLANTS AND HUMAN WELFARE: Crop improvement –
Introduction , aims and objectives of plant breeding; methods – definition,
methodology, advantages and achievements of Introduction, Selection (Mass,
Pureline, Clonal), Hybridization, Heterosis, Mutation breeding and Polyploidy
breeding. Biotechnology: Introduction, Definition, Scope and applications of
Biotechnology - Genetic Engineering - Recombinant DNA Technology, Genetically
Modified Crops, Transgenic plants, Biosafety issues, applications of Genetic
Engineering - Tissue Culture – techniques and Applications - Single cell
proteins – Advantages and Sources - Mushroom Cultivation:Morphology and types of
mushrooms; Food value; cultivation of white button mushrooms. Subject : ZOOLOGY
I. Zoology – The Basics: Nature and scope of Zoology, Areas of study under
zoology, relationship between zoology and other sciences, basic principles of
classification, need for classification, nomenclature, levels of classification
or systematic hierarchy, species concept, outline classification of the kingdom
II. General characters and classifications-Invertebrate Phyla
(upto the level of classes): Protozoa-general characters and brief account of
classification, Porifera – general characters & classification, Cnidaria –
general characters and classification, Platyhelminthes – general characters and
classification, Nematoda – general characters and classification, Annelida –
general characters and classification, Arthropoda – general characters and
classification, Mollusca – general characters and classification, Echinodermata
– general characters and classification.
III. Animal Organization: Introduction, Multicellularity
Diploblastic, triploblastic organization, Symmetry – types and characteristic
features of each symmetry with examples i.e. Asymmetry, Radial Symmetry,
Biradial symmetry Bilateral symmetry, Definition of Coelome, definitions and
examples of acoelomates, pseudocoelomates and enterocoelomates, The structure of
a generalized animal cell (brief account only), Animal Tissues (brief account)
epithelial tissues, connective tissue proper, supporting tissue, fluid tissue,
muscular tissue and nervous tissue.
IV. Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa: Locomotion –
Introduction, locomotor organelles in Protozoans (pseudopodia, cilia, flagella)
giving examples, Locomotion in Protozoans – amoeboid movement, Sol-gel theory,
Ciliary and Flagellar movements synchronal and metachronal movements in
Paramecium, Effective & Recovery strokes, Reproduction in Protozoa, Types of
Reproduction (i) Asexual reproduction types – Transverse binary fission in
paramecium, longitudinal binary fission in Euglena (ii) Sexual reproduction in
Protozoa Conjugation in Vorticella and its significance.
V. Animal Associations: Definition and examples of Mutualism,
Symbiosis, Commensalism, Parasitism, Structure, life cycles, diseases and
preventive measures of the following parasites (1) Entamoeba histolytica
(structure, life cycle pathogenecity, prevention), (2) Plasmodium vivax
(structure, life cycle pathogenecity, prevention), (3) Taenia solium (External
characters body wall, organs in mature proglottid, fertilization Life-cycle-Pathogenecity)
(4) Wuchereria bancrofti (structure, life cycle pathogenecity, prevention).
VI. Phylum Annelida: Phertima posthuma – (1) Introduction,
importance, different genera, species, habit & habitat. External characters –
structure and arrangement of setae, (2) body wall coelom, wall of alimentary
canal and locomotion, Pheretima (3) digestive system, Respiratory system,
Pheretema : (4) Blood vascular system, (5) Excretory system, (6) Nervous system,
(7) Reproductive system, (8) copulation, cocoon formation & development,
Regeneration, economic importance.
VII. Phylum : Arthropoda: (1) Arthropoda – Introduction –
Evolutionary characters of Arthropoda, (2) Cockroach, Periplaneta americana –
external features, body wall, Endoskeleton, stink glands, coelom, fat bodies,
locomotion, Cockroach – Digestive system, Respiratory system, Nervous system,
sense organs, structure of ommatidium, (3) Mouth parts of insects, cockroach,
Mosquito, Housefly, Butterfly, (4) Economic importance of insects (i) useful
insects (ii) harmful insects.
VIII. Man & Biosphere: Elementary aspects of ecosystem,
Abiotic factors light, temperature, water and their biological effects on
organisms, Biotic factors: producers, consumers and decomposers - Functional
aspects of ecosystem, food chains, food web, ecological pyramids, Lake as an
example of fresh water ecosystem, population ecology – Population density,
growth and growth curves - Biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity and wild
IX. Phylum – Chordata: Characteristics of Chordata, Ancestry
of Chordates, Outline classification of Chordata, Theories of origin of Chordata
– General features of Sub-phylum Urochordata & Sub- hylum Cephalochordata -
Subphylum Vertebrata : Pisces - General Characters, Classification with
examples, Amphibia : General characters, Classification with examples.
X. Reptilia – Aves & Mammalia: Reptilia: General Characters,
Classification of Chelonia, Rhynocephalia, Squamata and Crocodilia with typical
examples, Identification of poisonous and non poisonous snakes, poison
apparatus, toxicity of snake venom and treatment of snake bite including first
aid - Aves: Distinctive features, Classification, differences between Ratitae
and carinatae with typical examples - Mammalia : Distinctive features of
Prototheria, Metatheria & Eutheria with examples.
XI. Rabbit – Functional Anatomy-I (Digestive System,
Respiratory System & Circulatory System): Classification and External characters
of Rabbit - Digestive System, Alimentary Canal, Digestive Glands, Nutrition &
Digestion, Process of Digestion, Role of Vitamins and Mineral in Nutrition,
Nutritional requirements in relation to balanced diet - Respiratory system,
Mechanism of breathing and transport of gases - Circulatory System, Structure of
heart, Function of heart, Arterial system, Venous System, Blood Clotting.
XII. Rabbit-Functional Anatomy-II (Musclo-Skeletal System,
Excretory System, Reproductive System): Musculo Skeletal System, Ultra Structure
of Muscle fibre, sliding filament theory, Elementary idea of Axial skeleton and
appendicular skeleton: Types of Joints. Excretory System, Excretory Organs,
Structure of nephron in mammals, Formation and Composition of Urine, Micturition.
Reproductive system: Male Reproductive system, Female Reproductive system,
Copulation, Fertilization and Development, Placenta. Gestation period.
XIII. Rabbit – Functional Anatomy-III (Nervous System,
Endocrine Glands and their role in Human beings, Immunology): Nervous System,
Central, Peripheral and autonomous nervous systems Roman nomenclature of Cranial
and Spinal nerves and their functions. Generation and Propagation of Nerve
Impulse, Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and Role of Hormones. Endocrine
disorders in Human beings. Immunology : Types of Immunity, Organs of Immune
system, Cells of Immune systems, Soluble mediators of Immunity. Antigens,
Mechanism of Humoral and cell mediated Immunities, Immunological disorders:
XIV. Genetics-Introduction: Multiple alleles and Blood
groups, ABO Blood groups, Rh antigens, Sex determination, Sex Chromosomes,
Heterogametic sex determination, Sex determination in Drosophila, Sex
determination and Sexual differentiation in human being, Haplodiploidy in honey
bee, Effects of environment on sex determination, Hormonal control of sex
determination, Sex linked inheritance, Sex linkage in drosophila, Genes on the
sex chromosomes, Sex linked characters in human beings, X-linked characters,
Y-linked characters, X-Y linked character, Sex limited characters, Sex
influenced characters. - Gene Expression and regulation, Genetic Materials,
Function of Genes, Gene regulation in prokaryotes, Gene expression in
eukaryotes, concepts of Gene action one gene one poly
peptide concept only - Basic concepts of animal breeding, System of breeding,
Heterosis, Progeny Test, Cloning, Transgenic animals. Genome and Human genome
project, Gene Mapping, D.N.A. finger printing, An elementary idea of gene
XV. Organic Evolution: Evolutionary concepts and origin of
life, Experimental verification of chemical origin of life. Theories of
Evolution : Lamarkism or Inheritance of acquired characters, Darwinism or
Natural Selection, Sexual selection, Artificial selection, Mutation theory of
evolution, Synthetic theory of evolution or Neo-Darwinism : Hardy- Weinberg
equilibrium and evolutionary process – Natural selection, Genetic load, Genetic
Drift, Changes in Genotype frequencies and Speciation.
XVI. Applied Biology: Aquaculture: List of animals of
aquaculture importance, Fisheries – fish culture and rearing methods. Poultry :
Introduction to Poultry, Poultry farming, Poultry diseases - Biotechnology :
Recombinant D.N.A. technology, Industrial use of micro organisms and DNA
Technology, Vaccines, Enzymes, hormones, Interferons Monoclonal anti bodies. -
Cell cycle and its regulation, cancer biology, stem cells - Bio medical
technology : X-ray radiography, Definitions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI),
Electro Cardiography (ECG), Electro Encephalography (EEG), Transplantation,
ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).
Subject : PHYSICS
I - MEASUREMENTS, UNITS AND DIMENSIONS : Introduction- units
and Dimensions, Accuracy, precision of measuring instruments, Constant errors,
systematic errors, environmental errors (errors due to external causes). Error
due to imperfection, Random errors, Gross Errors, Absolute Errors, Relative
percentage errors, Errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, powers of observed quantities, Significant figures, Fundamental and
derived physical quantities / System of Units, definition of units in SI.
Multiple and submultiples of SI units, Dimensional formulae and dimensional
equations, dimensional constants and dimensionless quantities. Principle of
homogeneity of dimensions, Conversion of one system of units into another, to
check correctness of an equation, to derive the relationship between different
II - ELEMENTS OF VECTORS : Physical quantities, geometrical
representation of vectors, addition of vectors, equality of vectors, Resolution
of a vector into components, null vector, unit vector in Cartesian co-ordinate
system, position vector and its magnitude, Parallelogram law of addition of
vectors, Derivation of expression for the resultant vector, The direction of the
resultant, Special cases, Triangle law and polygon law of vectors, triangle law
of addition of vectors, polygon law of addition of vectors, concept of relative
velocity, application to relative motion of a boat in a river, motion of a boat
across a river, shortest path, shortest time, Multiplication of vector with a
scalar, product of two vectors, scalar product or dot product of two vectors,
properties of scalar product, examples of scalar product, work done and energy,
vector product of two vectors, properties of vector product of two vectors,
torque, angular momentum.
III - Kinematics : Introduction- Equations of motion,
acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion of a freely falling body,
Equations of motion of an object vertically projected upwards from the ground,
Maximum height (H), Time of ascent, time of descent, velocity of the body on
returning to the point of projection, Vertical projection of an object from a
tower, Projectiles – oblique projection from ground, equation of trajectory,
maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, two angles of
projection for the same range, velocity of projection at any instant, horizontal
projection from the top of a tower, equation of trajectory, time of descent,
range, velocity of the projectile (at any instant).
IV - DYNAMICS : Introduction- Newton’s laws of motion,
applications of Newton’s laws. Objects suspended by strings, Atwood machine,
blocks placed in contact with each other on frictionless horizontal surface,
apparent weight in a lift, Impulse, law of conservation of linear momentum,
conservation of linear momentum during collision, work, power, energy, KE&PE
definition and derivation for both, Relation between KE and Linear momentum,
conservation and nonconservation of energy in case of freely failing body and
vertically projected body.
V - COLLISIONS: Introduction – Elastic and inelastic
collisions, Collisions in one dimension (Elastic collision only), body at rest,
bodies moving on along in same direction and opposite directions, Co- fficient
of restitution, definition, equation for height attained for freely falling body
after number of rebounds on floor. VI - CENTRE OF MASS (CM): Introduction-
Centre of mass, difference between centre of mass and centre of gravity,
co-ordinates of centre of mass, center of mass of system of particles in space,
motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of CM), characteristics of
centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity and acceleration,
VII – FRICTION: Introduction - cause of friction, advantages
of friction, disadvantages of friction, methods of reducing friction, types of
friction, static friction, kinetic (or) dynamic friction, rolling friction,
Distinction between static and dynamic friction. Normal reaction, laws of
friction, static friction, kinetic friction or Dynamic friction, Rolling
friction, Angle of friction, motion of body on rough horizontal plane, motion of
bodies on an inclined plane, Body at rest on the plane-Angle of repose-when the
body is just ready to slide, when the body is sliding down. Motion of a body on
smooth inclined plane, body sliding down the plane, body sliding up the plane,
pushing and pulling of a lawn roller. A lawn roller on a horizontal surface
pulled by an inclined force, a roller on horizontal surface pushed by an
VIII - ROTATORY MOTION: Couple (concepts, units, dimensional
formula and examples), Vector representation of torque, Moment of Inertia(MI),
definition, units, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Expressions for MI
of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow spheres,
circular ring and cylinder (no derivations needed), angular momentum, relation
between angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum
with examples, Motion in vertical circle.
IX- GRAVITATION: Introduction- Basic forces in nature, Nature
of gravitation, law of universal gravitation, Relation between Universal
gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity (g), variation of ‘g’
with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of the earth, characteristics of
gravitational force, limitations of Newton’s third law, gravitational field,
field strength, properties of gravitational fields, Origin of black holes,
Chandrashekar limit, neutron star, Frames of reference, Inertial and Non-
Inertial frames, Inertial and Gravitational mass & relation between them,
Principle of equivalence, Escape and Orbital velocities, definition, derivation
of expressions and relation between them, Geostationary satellites and their
X- SIMPLE HARMIMIC MOTION (SHM): Introduction- simple
harmonic motion examples, SHM explanation by reference circle, expression for
displacement, amplitude, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency, phase,
initial phase (epoch) - Simple pendulum, expression for time period, loaded
spring, expression for time period, force constant, PE and KE of simple harmonic
oscillator, Total Energy of Simple Harmonic Oscillator, Law of conservation of
energy in the case of a simple pendulum.
XI- ELASTICITY: Introduction- Elasticity and plasticity,
stress, strain, Hook’s law, Moduli of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, definition
and its limit, Behavior of a wire under gradually increasing load- Elastic
fatigue, strain energy - experimental determination of Young’s modulus of wire.
XII- TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL EXPANSION OF MATERIALS:
Introduction- concept of temperature, Measurement of temperature, Fahrenheit,
Centigrade scales of temperature, their relation (only formulae)- Different
types of thermometers (brief theoretical description). Vibration of atoms in a
solid, PE curve, Anharmonicity of vibrations, explanation for expansion in
solids. Coefficients of linear, areal and cubical expansion, definitions,
Expressions & Relation between these coefficients of expansions, change of
density with temperature, examples in daily life. Introduction- coefficients of
real and apparent expansion of liquids, relation between them with derivation,
Determination of coefficient of apparent expansion of liquids by specific
gravity method, Anomalous expansion of water, its significance in nature.
Introduction - volume and pressure coefficients of gases, relation between them
and derivation. Determination of volume coefficient-Regnault’s method.
Determination of pressure coefficient-Jolly’s bulb method. Kelvin scale of
temperature, Boyle’s and Charle’s laws. Ideal gas equation, derivation,
significance of Universal gas constant.
XIII- THERMO-DYNAMICS: Introduction - Quasistatic and cyclic
process, reversible and irreversible processes, Heat and Temperature, Zeroeth
law of Thermodynamics, definition of Calorie, Joule’s law and mechanical
equivalent of heat, Internal energy, First law of thermodynamics, equation and
explanation. Heat capacity, specific heat, experimental determination of
specific heat by the method of mixtures. Specific heats of a gas (Cp and Cv),
External work done by a gas during its expansion. Relation between Cp and Cv
derivation, Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Relation between P, V and T in
these processes. Expression for work done in Isothermal process (no derivation),
expression of work done in adiabatic process (no derivation). Heat engines and
refrigerators (only qualitative treatment) Three phases of matter, Triple
point – Triple point of water. Latent heat, Determination of latent heat of
vaporization of water, Second law of thermodynamics – different statements.
XIV- TRANSMISSION OF HEAT: Introduction - conduction of heat,
coefficient of thermal conductivity, convection- Type of convections, Nature and
properties of Thermal radiation, Prevost’s theory of heat exchange - emission
power and absorptive power - Black body radiation, Kirchoff’s law and its
applications – Stefan’s law – Newton’s law of cooling.
XV - SURFACE TENSION: Introduction - surface tension,
definition - Examples, molecular theory of surface tension. Surface energy,
Angle of contact, capillarity-examples in daily life, Determination of surface
tension, capillary rise method – theory and experiment. Effect of temperature on
surface tension, excess pressure in liquid drops and soap bubbles.
XVI- FLUID MACHANICS: Introduction - Principle of Buoyancy-
pressure in a fluid - Streamline flow – Bernoulli’s theorem - equation with
derivation – applications-aerodynamic lift, motion of a spinning ball,
Illustrations of Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity – explanation coefficient of
viscosity effect of temperature on viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Motion of
objects through fluids. Stokes formula, net force on the object, terminal
XVII- WAVE MOTION: Longitudinal and transverse waves,
Equation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection
of waves, Formation of waves on a stretched string, laws of vibrating strings,
experimental verification by Sonometer, Sound: Characteristics of sound, speed
of sound in solids, liquids and gases (only formula to be given), Forced
Vibrations, Free Vibrations, Resonance with examples, standing waves in Organ
Pipes, Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental frequency-Overtones, Harmonics,
definition and explanation, Beats definition and its importance. Doppler Effect,
Definition, derivation of relation for apparent frequency of a sound note
emitted by a source for the cases a) only source is moving, b) only listener is
moving, c) both source and listener are moving. Applications and limitations of
Doppler Effect- Echoes, Absorption of sound waves, Reverberation – Reverberation
Time, Fundamentals of building Acoustics – Statement of Sabine’s Law.
XVIII- OPTICS: Nature of Light, Newton’s corpuscular Theory,
Huygen’s Wave Theory- Electromagnetic spectrum. Huygen’s Explanation of
Reflection and Refraction of plane waves at a plane surface. Refraction through
prism, Derivation of Refractive index of material of prism for minimum
deviation, critical angle, Total Internal Reflection, Relation between Critical
angle and Refractive Index, application of total internal reflection to Optical
fibers. Defects in Images: Spherical and Chromatic aberrations and reducing
these defects, Different methods (qualitative treatment). Optical Instruments:
Microscope, Telescope, Formula for magnification of Microscope, Astronomical and
Terrestrial Telescopes. Construction of Ramsden’s and Huygen’s eye pieces with
ray diagrams. Dispersion of light, dispersive power, pure and impure spectra,
condition for obtaining pure spectrum, different kinds of spectra– Emission
spectra, Line, Band and continuous spectra, absorption spectra, Fraunhofer lines
and their significance.
XIX- PHYSICAL OPTICS: Interference – condition for
interference, Young’s double slit experiment – Derivation for Intensity and
fringe width – Uses of interference, Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer
diffraction (Qualitative only). Polarisation: Concepts of Polarisation. Plane
Polarisation of Light by Reflection, Refraction and Double Refraction (Polaroids).
XX- MAGNETISM: Coulomb’s Inverse Square Law, Definition of
Magnetic Field, Magnetic Lines of Force- Uniform and Non – Uniform Magnetic
Fields. Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field,
Definition of magnetic moment of magnet. Magnetic Induction due to a bar magnet
on axial and equatorial lines. Superposition of magnetic fields, Tangent Law,
Deflection Magnetometer. Comparison of Magnetic Moments in Tan A, Tan B
positions by equal distance method and Null Method, Verification of Inverse
Square Law. Vibration Magnetometer- Principle and Description, Experimental
determination of M and BH(earth’s horizontal component) using Vibration
Magnetometer. Types of magnetic materials – Para, Dia, and Ferro Magnetism –
Definition and properties.
XXI- ELECTROSTATICS: Charges – conservation of charge and
additive property of charges. Coulomb’s Law : Permittivity of Free Space and
Permittivity of Medium, Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple
charges – Principle of superposition with examples. Electric field, Electric
lines of force, their properties, Electric field intensity definition, electric
intensity due to isolated charge and due to multiple charges. Electrostatic
Potential, Definition of Electrostatic Potential in an electric field- Potential
due to single charge and multiple charges, Electrostatic potential energy-
Relation between electrostatic potential and electric intensity. Electric Flux &
Gauss Law: Electric Flux Definition, Gauss Law-Statement of Gauss Law,
Application of Gauss Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic Potential
due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, Infinite Plane
Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance, Definition of Electrical Capacity of a
Conductor, Capacitance, Dielectric constant, Definition of Condenser, its uses,
Parallel plate Condenser, Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser,
Dielectric, Dielectric Strength, Effect of dielectric on capacitance of
capacitor. Capacitors in series and in parallel: derivation of the equivalent
capacitance for the above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser, Effect of
dielectric on Energy of Condenser, Types of capacitors, their uses.
XXII- CURRENT ELECTRICITY: Electric current – Flow of
Electric charges in a metallic conductor, Drift velocity and mobility, Relation
between electric current and drift velocity. Ohm’s Law: Statement, Ohmic and
Non-Ohmic elements with examples, Conductance, Specific resistance, Variation of
resistivity with temperature, Variation of Resistance with temperature,
Thermistor. E.M.F. of Cell – Internal resistance and back E.M.F., Difference
between EMF of a Cell and potential difference. Electrical energy, Power
definition of kWh. Kirchhoff’s laws: Statement of Kirchhoff’s voltage law,
Kirchhoff’s current law, their application to Wheatstone bridge, condition for
balancing, Meter bridge, Determination of resistance of a conductor using meter
bridge. Principle of Potentiometer- etermination of internal resistance and
E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer. Series and parallel combination of cells –
Derivation of equivalent EMF for the above cases.
XXIII- THERMOELECTRICITY: Introduction- Seebeck effect,
Peltier and Thomson effects and their coefficients. Variation of themo EMF with
temperature, Neutral and Inversion Temperatures. Applications of Thermo- Couple.
XXIV- ELECTROMAGNETICS: Oersted’s Experiment, Biot – Savart
Law, Ampere’s Law, Magnetic field near a long straight wire and magnetic field
at the Center of a circular coil carrying current (with derivations). Field on
the axis of circular coil carrying current (expression only). Tangent
Galvanometer (TG), Principle and working, Definition of Reduction Factor. Force
on a moving charge in a magnetic field, Force on a current carrying conductor
placed in a magnetic field, Force between two long straight parallel conductors
carrying current, Definition of Ampere, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Current loop
as a magnetic dipole, force and Torque on Current loop in an uniform magnetic
field, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Principle, Construction
and working of Moving Coil Galvanometer (MCG), Converting MCG into ammeter and
voltmeter, comparison of MCG with TG. Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic Flux,
Induced EMF, Faraday’s and Lenz’s Laws. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Self
Inductance, Mutual Inductance, Principle of Transformer. Growth & decay of
current in L-R circuit with DC source, Growth and decay of charge in R.C.
Circuit connected to DC source, Equations for charge on condenser – Current in
inductor, Time constant, Definition and its significance. Alternating current (A.C),
Introduction – Instantaneous, maximum and RMS value of A.C. current, Alternating
Voltage applied to a pure resistor, pure inductor, pure capacitor, AC through
C-R, L-R and L-C-R series circuits.
XXV ATOMIC PHYSICS: Discovery of electron, e/m of electron by
Thomson’s method, Charge of the electron by Millikan’s Oil Drop Method
(Principle Only). Photo Electric Effect : Definition, Laws of Photoelectric
Emission, Einstein’s explanation of Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s Photo
electric equation and its experimental verification by Milikan’s method. Photo
Electric Cells, working and uses. X- Rays- Production of X- Rays, Coolidge tube,
X- ray spectrum, Continuous X- Ray Spectra, Characteristic X – Ray Spectra,
Moseley’s Law and its importance. Compton effect (Statement only), Dual nature
of matter, de Broglie’s hypothesis (concept only).
XXVI NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Composition and size of nucleus, mass
deffect and binding energy and their relation (Explanation with examples).
Natural radio activity – alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their properties,
radio active decay law, half life and average life of a radio active substance,
Nuclear forces – Their Properties, Artificial Transmutation of elements,
Discovery of Neutron, Radio Isotopes and their uses. Nuclear Fission, Chain
Reaction, Principle and Working of a Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Radiation Hazards,
Protective shielding, Types of reactors – Breeder Reactor, Power Reactor and
their uses. Nuclear Fusion, Energy of Sun and stars, Carbon – Nitrogen cycle and
proton – proton cycle, Elementary particles.
XXVII SEMI-CONDUCTOR DEVICES: Introduction- Intrinsic and
extrinsic semi conductors (n and p type). Junction diode, p-n junction,
depletion layer and barrier potential, Forward and Reverse bias, and
Current-Voltage characteristics of junction diode, p-n Diode as half wave and
full wave rectifier (only qualitative treatment), Zener Diode as a voltage
regulator.Transistor Function of Emitter, Base and Collector, p-n-p and n-p-n
Transistors, Biasing of Transistors, Current –Voltage Characteristics of
Transistor in CE configuration, Transistor as common emitter amplifier
(qualitative treatment), Logic Gates (OR, AND , NOT, NOR, NAND)
XXVIII COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Elements of communication
systems (block diagram only), Bandwidth of signals (Speech, TV and digital
data), bandwidth of Transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in
the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, Modulation, Need for modulation.
Subject : CHEMISTRY
I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Characteristics of electron, proton and
neutron. Rutherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Planck’s quantum theory. Explanation of photo electric effect. Dual behavior of
electromagnetic radiation. Features of atomic spectra – Emission and absorption
spectra. Characteristics of hydrogen spectrum. Bohr’s theory of the structure of
the atom – Postulates. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom,Energy of an electron.
Bohr’s explanation of spectral lines. Failure of Bohr’s theory. Wave-particle
nature of electron. de Broglie’s hypothesis, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
Important features of the quantum mechanical model of an atom – Meaning and
significance of wave function. Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals, definition
of atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers - shapes of s, p and d orbitals,
Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum
multiplicity. Electronic configuration of atoms. Explanation of stability of
half filled and completely filled orbitals.
II. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES:
Concept of grouping elements in accordance to their properties –Mendeleef’s
Periodic Table. Periodic law – Mendeleef’s classification of elements.
Significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for
periodic classification. Classification of elements into s, p, d, f blocks and
their main characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties
of elements: Atomic radii, Ionic radii, Inert gas radii, Ionization energy,
Electron gain energy, Electronegativity, Valency, variation of oxidation states,
Electropositivity – Metallic and Non-metallic nature, Nature of Oxides, Diagonal
relationship. Variation of atomic radii in inner transition elements.
III. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Kossel -Lewis
approach to chemical bonding. Factors favorable for the formation of ionic bond,
energy changes in ionic bond formation. Crystal lattice energy - calculation of
lattice energy – Born - Haber cycle. Crystal structure of sodium chloride and
Caesium chloride, Coordination number. Properties of ionic compounds. Covalent
bond - VSEPR theory – Lewis representation of covalent compounds, Formal charge,
geometry of simple molecules. The valence bond approach for the formation of
covalent bonds. Directional properties of covalent bond. Properties of covalent
bond. Hybridization - different types of hybridization involving s, p and d
orbitals. Shapes of simple covalent molecules. Definition of coordinate covalent
bond with examples. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules.
Symmetry and energy of sigma and pi bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.
Molecular orbital energy diagram of H2, N2 and O2. Concept of hydrogen bond and
its types with examples. Effect of hydrogen bonding on properties of compounds.
IV. STOICHIOMETRY:Laws of chemical combination. Molar mass,
concept of equivalent weight with examples. Percentage composition of compounds
and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds. Chemical
reactions and equations, Stoichiometry. Oxidation number concept. Balancing of
redox reactions by ion electron method and oxidation number method. Types of
redox reactions. Applications of redox reactions in titrimetric quantitative
analysis. Redox reactions and electrode processes.
V. STATES OF MATTER / GASES : Graham’s law of diffusion,
Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, empirical
derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of
gases. Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) - deduction of gas laws.
Distribution of molecular velocities and types of molecular velocities –
Average, Root Mean Square and Most Probable Velocity. Behaviour of real gases,
deviation from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor versus pressure, diagrams
of real gases. Conductions of liquification of gases, critical temperature.
VI. SOLUTIONS: Classification of solutions, molarity,
normality, molality and mole fraction. Dilute solutions, vapor pressure,
Raoult’s law, Limitations of Raoult’s law. Colligative properties – (i) Relative
lowering of vapor pressure (ii) Elevation of B.P (iii) Depression in freezing
point and their relation to molar mass. Osmosis and osmotic pressure - theory of
dilute solutions. Determination of molar mass using colligative properties:
Ostwald’s dynamic method, Cottrell’s method, Rast’s method and Berkeley
Hartley’s method. Abnormal molecular mass.
VII. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY: Conductance in electrolytic
solutions. Specific, Equivalent and Molar conductance - variation of conductance
with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law, application to calculation of equivalent
conductance of weak electrolytes. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox
reactions. Electrolysis. Some typical examples of electrolysis viz; Fused Sodium
hydroxide, Fused sodium chloride, Brine solution, Fused Magnesium chloride.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and applications. Galvanic and voltaic cells.
Representation and notation of electrochemical cells with and without salt
bridge. Standard hydrogen electrode, electrode potentials, electrochemical
series. EMF of the cell, Nernst equation and its application to calculate EMF of
electrochemical cells. Primary cell - dry cell / Lechlanche cell. Secondary
cells - Fuel cells: Hydrogen - Oxygen fuel cell and Hydrocarbon - Oxygen fuel
cell. Corrosion: mechanism, factors to promote corrosion and prevention of
corrosion, passivity, Lead accumulator.
VIII. SOLID STATE: Classification of solids based on
different binding forces as molecular, ionic, covalent, and metallic solids.
Elementary treatment of metallic bond. Metallic solids, amorphous and
crystalline solids. Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices.
Seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Bragg’s equation, X-ray study of
crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing
in solids, voids, number of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects - Schottky
and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.
IX. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concepts of reaction rate, factors
affecting reaction rates. Rate law, Units of rate constant. Order and
molecularity. Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate
equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction Collision theory of
reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy. Equilibrium:
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,
Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors affecting equilibrium.
Relation between Kp and Kc, Le Chatelier’s principle, application to industrial
synthesis of (i) Ammonia (ii) Sulphur trioxide. Acids and Bases: Lowry-Bronsted
acid base theory. Lewis theory, limitation of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium.
Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of
ionization. Ionic product of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts
(elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions.Solubility product and
common ion effect with illustrative examples.
X. THERMODYNAMICS: Concept of system, types of systems,
surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state
functions. First law of thermodynamics - Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat
capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of
Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation,
atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution. Thermo
chemical equations. Hess’s law of constant heat summation. Driving force for a
spontaneous process. Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in
terms of entropy, entropy as a state function.Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free
energy change for spontaneous, non-spontaneous and equilibrium processes.
XI. SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption: Physical and chemical
adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it - pressure (Langmuir
and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature. Catalysis - types of catalysis,
autocatalysis Colloidal state: colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal
solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids - Tyndall
effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions,
micelles, cleansing action of soap.
XII. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in
periodic table. Occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen - Preparation,
properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactions of hydrogen leading to ionic,
molecular and non - stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical properties of
water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal Hydrogen peroxide –
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties - oxidation, reduction,
decomposition, disproportionation and addition reactions. Detection, structure
and uses of Hydrogen Peroxide.
XIII. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: Electronic
configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each
group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy,
atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water,
uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation and properties of Sodium
hydroxide, Sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Preparation and uses
of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate. Biological importance
of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
XIV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: (IIIA GROUP
ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous properties of first
element of the group. Boron- Physical and chemical properties and uses of boron.
Borax, boric acid and boron hydrides. Preparation, structure and properties of
diborane. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum.
XV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: (IVA GROUP
ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first
element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties
and uses.Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon.
Important compounds of Silicon - Silicon dioxide, Silicon tetrachloride,
silicones, silicates and zeolites. Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and
XVI. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (VA GROUP
ELEMENTS): Occurrence - physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy,
catenation electronic configuration, oxidation states. General characteristics
and structure of hydrides. General characteristics of oxides and halides.
Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Preparation and uses of nitric acid and
Ammonia. Super phosphate of lime.
XVII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VIA GROUP
ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, physical
states of oxygen and sulphur, their structure and allotropy. General
characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxyacids
of chalcogens. Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone. Sodium thiosulphate,
Sulphuric acid – industrial process of manufacture.
XVIII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VIIA GROUP
ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Physical
states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electronegativity, Electron affinity,
bond energies, chemical reactivity, oxidizing power of fluorine and chlorine.
Structural aspects of oxyacids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of
fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter-halogen compounds.
XIX. GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic
configuration, occurrence and isolation. Trends in physical and chemical
properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides.
XX TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic
configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. General
trends in properties of first row transition elements - metallic character,
ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color,
catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds and alloy
formation. Lanthanides: Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states,
chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction. Coordination compounds:
Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werner’s theory of coordination
compounds, shapes of coordination compounds - Valence bond theory, IUPAC
nomenclature of mono molecular coordination compounds, bonding, isomerism, EAN
rule, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction
of metals and biological systems (chromo-proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll:
XXI. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY: Principles and methods
of extraction - concentration, reduction by chemical and Electrolytic methods
and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and
Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium.
XXII. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms, types of
Pollution, Air, Water and Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide,
oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, chloro fluoro carbons. Chemical reactions in
atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain. Ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer. Green house effect and global
warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes.
XXIII. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:
Methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic
compounds. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Homolytic
and heterolytic fission of covalent bond. Types of regents – electrophiles,
nucleophiles and free radicals with examples. Reactive intermediates. Types of
organic reactions - substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement
reactions with examples. Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and
XXIV. HYDROCARBONS: Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes -
Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparation of ethane. Physical properties,
chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, Combustion
and Pyrolysis of ethane. Cycloalkanes : Preparation and properties of
cyclohexane. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), cis,
trans isomerism, physical properties. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical
properties and chemical reactions - addition of hydrogen, halogen, water,
hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis and
oxidation. Mechanism of electrophilic addition.
XXV. ALKYNES & AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: Nomenclature, structure
of triple bond. Acetylene - Methods of preparation, Physical properties and
chemical reactions: acidic character of acetylene, addition reaction of -
hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons:
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance and aromaticity, Chemical
properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution - Nitration, Sulphonation,
Halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and Acylation. Directive influence of
functional group in mono-substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
DEL QUESTIONS – MATHEMATICS
XXVI: STEREO CHEMISTRY: Optical activity-discovery,
determination using a polarimeter, specific rotation, Chirality - Chiral
objects, Chiral molecules. Configuration and Fischer projections, Asymmetric
carbon, elements of symmetry, compounds containing one chiral centre,
enantiomers, D-L and R-S nomenclature, racemic forms, racemisation. Compounds
containing two chiral centers, diastereo, isomens, mesoform, resolution,
importance of stereochemistry.
XXVII. HALOALKANES & HALOARENES: Nomenclature, nature of C-X
bond, Preparation, physical and chemical properties of ethyl chloride and
chloroform. Mechanism of SN1, and SN2 reactions Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond,
Substitution reactions of chlorobenzene (directive influence of halogen for mono
substituted compounds only).
XXVIII. ALCOHOLS / PHENOLS AND ETHERS: Alcohols:
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of ethyl
alcohol, Mechanism of dehydration. Identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols. Uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods
of preparation and Physical and chemical properties of phenol, acidic nature of
phenol. Electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers:
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses
of diethyl ether.
XXIX: ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: Nomenclature, and nature of
carbonyl group. Methods of preparation and Physical and Chemical properties and
uses of acetaldehyde and acetone. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, Reactivity
of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes;
XXX. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: Nomenclature and acidity of carboxylic
acids. Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties and uses of
XXXI. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN: Nitrobenzene:
Preparation, properties and uses. Amines: Nomenclature and classification of
amines. Structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and
uses of Aniline. Identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance of diazonium
salts in synthetic organic chemistry. Azo dyes and their uses.
XXXII. POLYMERS & BIOMOLECULES: Classification of polymers.
Addition and condensation polymerization. Copolymerization. Natural rubber,
vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber – Neoprene and Buna-S Molecular
weights of polymers - Number average and weight average molecular weights
(definition only) Biopolymers – Carbohydrates and Proteins. Biodegradable
polymers and some commercially important polymers like polythene, nylon,
polyesters and bakelite. Carbohydrates:Importance. Classification into (a)
aldoses and ketoses and (b) mono (glucose and fructose), oligo (sucrose,
lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen). Structure
determination and propetties of glucose. Structural features of oligo and
polysaccharides mentioned above. Proteins: Elementary idea of Alpha amino acids,
peptide bond, polypeptides and proteins. Primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structures of Proteins (Qualitative idea only). Denaturation of
proteins; enzymes. Vitamins: Classification and functions of vitamins in
biosystems. Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of
nucleic acids. Chemical composition of DNA & RNA, Primary structure of DNA and
its double helix. Replication. Transcription, protein synthesis and genetic
code. Lipids: Classification, structure and functions of lipids in biosystems.
Hormones: Classification, structural features and functions of hormones in
XXXIII. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE: Uses of Chemicals in
medicine: Analgesics : Narcotics (morphine, codeine). Non-narcotics (Aspirin,
Ibuprofen). Antipyretics (Analgin, phenacetin and paracetamol). Tranquilizers (Barbituric
acid, Luminal, seconal, valium). Antiseptics (Chloroxylenol, bithional),
Disinfectants (formalin), Antimicrobials (lysozyme, lactic acid, hydrochloric
acid in stomach). Antibiotics (pencillin, chloramphenicol, sulphadiazine).
Chemicals in food preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium metabisulphite).
Artificial sweetening agents (Aspartame, alitane, sucrolose).