Ed.CET-2011 Entrance Test Syllabus
Physical Science: Chemistry (Marks: 50)
1. Atomic Structure and Elementary Quantum Mechanics
Black Body radiation, Plack's Radiation law, Photoelectric effect, heat
capacity of solids, Comption effect. De Broglie's hypothesis, Heisenberg's
uncertainty principle, Sinusoidal wave equation, Hamiltonian operator,
Schordinger's wave equation and its importance, physical interpretation of the
2. Chemical Bonding
Lonic solids - lattice and salvation energy, solubility of ionic solids rule,
power and oplarisability of ions, covalent nature of ionic bond covalent bond -
Stereochemistry of inorganic molecules - common hybridization and shapes of
molecules Molecular orbital theory - Shapes and sign convention of atomic
orbital, modes of overlapping, concepts of sigma and pi bonds, criteria for
forming molecular orbital from atomic orbital, LCAO - concept, types of
molecular orbital - bonding, antibonding and non-bobding, electron density
distribution diagram for H2 +, MOED of homonuclear - H2, He2+, B2, C2, N2, O2,
F2 and their ions (unhybridised diagrams only) and heteronuclear diatomic
molecules CO, CN-, NO, NO- and HF. Bond order and magnetic properties.
3. Periodic properties
Review of trends in atomic and ionic radii - covalent radii - single, double
and triple bond covalent radii, van der Waal radii, radii of cations, anions
isoelectronic ions, ionization energy, Electropositivity, basic nature, reducing
behavior, electron affinity and electro negativity - Methods of determination
and evaluation - Pauling's and Mulliken's approach, application in predicting
and explaining chemical behavior - nature of bond, bond length and bond angles,
4. s-block and p-block elements
Comparative study, salient feature of hydrides - ionic and covalent,
ploynuclear, complex hydrides, reducing properties. Oxides - monoxide, peroxide
and super oxide - basicity, oxidizing nature. Complexation tendencies.
Comparative study of group 13-17. Hydrides - Classification - ionic,
covalent, metallic and complex hydrides. Synthesis of each class of hydrides.
Structure of (a) covalent hydrides, electron deficient hydrides. Diborane,
decaborane. (b) complex hydrides - borohydrides. Reactivity - stability,
hydrolysis and reducing properties. Oxides - Classification - a) Normal -
acidic, basic amphoteric and neutral, b) mixed, c) sub oxide, d) peroxide, e)
super oxide. Structure of oxides of C, N, P, S and Cl. Reactivity - thermal
stability, hydrolysis. Halides - Classification - ionic, covalent and complex
halides. Structure of halides of B, C, Si, N, P, S. Reactivity - stability,
hydrolysis. Lewis acid nature of boron trihalides. Oxy - acids - Oxy - acids of
B, C, N, P, S and Cl - structure and acidic nature. Carboranes - Nomenclature,
classification - closo, niod and arachno -* preparation and structure.
Borazole - Preparation, properties and structure.
Carbomyls - Classification - mono and ploynuclear, general preparation,
structure and bonding in Ni(CO4), Fe(CO)5 and Co2(CO)8.
5. d - block elements
Chemistry of elements of First Transition series - electronic configuration,
metallic nature, atomic and ionic radii, ionization potential - Oxidation state
- relative stability of various oxidation states, ionic and covalenet character,
acidic and basic nature, oxidizing and reducing nature of various oxidation
states, redox potential - Frost and Latimer diagrams - stability,
disproportionation and comproportionation of different oxidation states. Colour
- d-d transition, colour and spectral behaviour of transition metal ions with
respect of d1-d2 configuration. Magnetic behavior - determination of magnetic
moment, Gou's balance, paramagnetism, diamagnetism. Complexation behaviour,
stability of complexes - oxidation states, pi complexes, class-a, class-b and
class-a/b acceptors. Catalytic properties - important examples.
Chemistry of elements of Second and Third Transition series - comparative
treatment with their 3d analogues with respect to oxidation state, magnetic
behavior, spectral properties. Study of Ti, Cr and Cu triads - Titanium triad -
electronic configuration, reactivity of +III and +IV states - oxides, halides.
Chromium triad - reactivity of +III and +VI states. Copper triad - reactivity of
+l, +II, and +III states.
6. f- block elements
Chemistry of Lanthanides - electronic structure, position in periodic table,
oxidation state, Atomic and ionic radii, Lanthanide contraction - cause and
consequences, anomalous behaviour of post lanthanides, basicity, Complexation -
type of donor ligands preferred, agnetic properties - paramagnetism. Colour and
spectra - f-f transition. Occurrence and separation - ion exchange method,
Chemistry of Actinides - General features - electronic configuration, oxidation
state, actinide contraction, and colour and complex formation. Comparison with
Theories of bonding in metals - Free electron theory - thermal and electrical
conductivity of metals, drawbacks. Valence bond theory - explanation of metallic
properties and its limitations. Band theory - explanation of metallic
properties, conductors, semi conductors and insulators. General methods involved
in extraction of metals - minerals and ores, ore concentration - electromagnetic
separation, gravity separation - wilfley table, hydraulic classifier, leaching,
froth flotation, Calcination and roasting. Acid and alkali digestion. Reduction
of oxides, carbonates, halides, sulphides, sulphates - smelting, flux, auro
reduction, alumino - thermic reduction, hydrometallurgy, electrolytic reduction.
Purification of impure metals - liquation, fractional distillation,
zone refining, oxidative processes - cupellation, bassemerisation, puddling,
poling, thermal decomposition, Amalgamation, Electrolysis. Alloys -
Classification, substitutional solid solutions, interstitial solid solutions,
intermetallic compounds, Hume - Rothery rules. Preparation of alloys - fusion,
electro deposition, reduction and compression Uses ferrous and non-ferrous
8. Co-ordination compounds
Nomenclature of inorganic molecules and complex compounds - A. Simple
inorganic molecules - multiplying affixes, structural affixes (i) cations -
monatomic homopolyatomic, (ii) anions - monoatomic, homopolyatomic,
heteropolyatomic (iii) radicals (iv) isopolyanions (v) heteropolyanions (vi)
salts and salt like compound (vii) addition compounds. B. Complex compounds -
Werner's theory - postulates, experimental evidences. Sidwick's theory -
calculation of BAN, limitations. Metai Ligand bonding in Transition metal
complexes - Valence bond theory - postulates, geometries of coordination number
4 - tetra hedral and square planer and 6 - octahedral. Limitations.
Crystal field theory - features,
splitting of d - orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar
complexes, crystal field stabilization energy, (elementary treatment -diagrams
only). Magnetic properties of Transition metal complexes. Types of magnetic
behavior, spin only formula, calculation of magnetic moments. Electronic spectra
of metal complexes - d-d transitions, spectrochemical series. Determination of
composition of complexes, Job's method and mole ratio method, Stability
constants, factors affecting stability of complexes. Isomerism in co-ordination
compounds - Structural - ionization, hydrate, linkage, coordination,
coordination position and polymerization isomerism. Stereoisomerisms -
geometrical and optical isomerism.
Hard and soft acids and bases
Classification, Pearson's concept of hardness and softness, application of
HSAB principles - stability of complexes, predicting the feasibility of a
reaction. Organic chemistry -1
9. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds
Molecular representations: Wedge, Fischer, Newman and Saw-horse formulae.
Isomeris: Definition of homomers and isomers. Classification of isomers;
Constitutional and Stereosiomers - definition and examples. Constitutional
isomers: chain, functional, positional isomers and metarerism. Stereoisomers:
enantiomers and diastereomers - definitions and examples. Conformational and
Configurational isomerism - definition.
10. Structural theory in Organic Chemistry
Brief review of structural theory of organic chemistry, Hybridization, Bond
length, bond angle, bond energy, curved arrow notation, drawing electron
movements with half headed and double headed arrow. Types of bond fission and
organic reagents (Electrophilic, Nucleophilic, and free radical reagents
including neutral molecules like H2O2, BF3, NH3 & AICI3.
Bond polarization: Factors influencing the polarization of covalent
bonds, electro negativity - inductive effect. Application of inductive effect,
(a) Basicity of amines(b) Acidity carboxylic acids (c) Stability carbonim ions.
Resonace or Mesomere effect, application to (a) acidity phenol, (b) acidity of
carboxylic acides. Hyper conjugation and its application to stability to
stability of carbonium ions, Free radicals and alkenes.
Types of organic reactions: Addition - electrophilic, nucleophilic and
free radical. Substitution - electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radicium.
Elimination - Examples (mechanism not required).
11. Acyclic Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes - IUPAC Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons. Method of preparation:
Hydrogenation of alkynes and alkenes, Wurtz reaction, Keibe's electrolysis,
Corey-House reaction. Chemical reativity - inert nature, free radical
substitution mechanism. Halogenation examples - reactivity, selectivity and
orientation. Conformational analysis of ethane and n-butance.
Alkene - Preparation of alkenes (a) by dehydration of alcohols (b)
dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (c) by dehalogenation of 1, 2 dihalides
(brief mechanism), Zaitsev's rule. Properties: Addition of Hydrogen - heat of
hydrogenation and stability of alkenes. Addition of halogen and its mechanism.
Adition of HX, Markonikov's rule, addition of H2O' HOX, H2SO4 with mechanism
and addition of HBr in the presence of peroxide (anti - Markonikv's addition).
Oxidation - hydroxylation by KMnO4, OSO4 Peracids (Via epoxidation),
nydroboration, ozonolysis - location of double bond. Dienes - Types of dienes,
reactions of conjugated dienes- 1, 2 and 1, 4 addition of HBr to 1,3- butadiene
and Diel's - Alder reaction.
Alkynes - Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of dihalides, dehalogenation of
tetrahalides acetylene from CaC2. Properties: Acidity of acetylenic hydrogen
(formation of metal acetylides). Preparation of higher acetylenes, metalammonia
reductions. Physical properties. Chemical reactivity - electrophilic
addition of X2, HX, H2O (taoutomerism), Oxidation (formation of enediol, 1, 2
diones and carboxylic acids), reduction and polymerization reaction of acetylene
12. Benzene and its reactivity
Molecular formula of Benzene, structure of Benzene - open chain structure not
possible, proposition of cyclic structure by kekule, dynamic equilibrium,
evidence based on ozonolysis experiment, concept of resonance, resonance energy.
Heat of hydrogenadon, heat of combustion of Benzene, mention of C-C bond lengths
and orbital picture of Benzene.
Concept of aromaticity - aromaticity (definition), Huckl's rule -
application to Benzenoid (Benzene, Napthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrace) and
Non- Benzenoi compounds (cyclopropenyl cation, cyclopentadienyl anion and
Reactions General mechanism of electrophilic substitution mechanism of
nitration and sulfonation. Mechanism of halogenatton, Friedel craft's alkylation
and acylation. Orientation of aromatic substitution - Definition ortho, para and
meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating group with examples
(Electronic Interpretation of various groups like NO2 and Phenolic).
Orientation: (i) Amino methoxy and methyl groups, (ii) Carboxy, nitro mitrile,
sulfonic acid groups, (iii) Halogens (Explanation by taking minimum of one
example from each type).
13. Areness and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
Polynuclear hydrocarbons - Structure of naphthalene and anthracene (Molecular
Orbital diagram and resonance energy) Reactivity towards electrophilic
substitution. Nitration and sulfonation as examples.
Nomenclature and classification of hydroxyl compounds. Preparation: from
carbonyl compounds. Aryl carbinols by hydroxyl methylation. Phenols - (a) by
diazotization (b) from sulfonic acid (c) from cumene (d) by hydrolysis of
halobenzene. Physical properties - Hydrogen bonding (inter molecular and
intramolecular) effect of hydrogen bonding on boiling point and water solubility
Chemical properties (a) acidic nature of Phenols (b) Formation of aloxide/phenoxides
and their reaction with RX (c) replacement of OH by X using PCI5, PBr3, SOCI2
and with HX/ZnCI2. Esterification by (a) acid halides, anhydrides and acids
(mechanism) (b) Esters of inorganic acids (c) dehydration of alcohols. Oxidation
of alcohols by CrO3l KMnO4. Special reactions of phenols - (a) Bromination, (b)
Kolbe - Schmidt reaction (c) Riemer Tiemann (d) Azo coupling. Identification of
alcohols by oxidation - KmnO4, Ceric ammonium nitrate - Lucas reagent; Phenols
by reaction with FeCIs, and by the solubility in NaOH. Polyhydroxyl compounds -
Pinacol - Pinacolone rearrangement, Oxidative cleavage (Pb(OAc)4 & HIO4).
Nomemclature of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds and isomerism.
Synthesis of aldehydes & ketones from acid chloride by using 1,3-dithianes,
nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Base catalysed reactions - with particular
emphasis on Aldol, Cannizaro reaction, Perkin reaction, Benzoin condensation,
haloform eaction, Knoevengeal condensation. Oxidation reactions - KMnO4
oxidation and auto oxidation, reduction - catalytic hydrogenation, Clemmenson's
reduction, Wolf-kishner reduction, MPV reduction, reduction with LAH, NaBH4.
Analysis - 2,4 - DNP test, Tollen's test, Fechlings test, Scihffs test, haloform
test (with equations). Introduction to ap-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
Nitro hydro carbons: Nomenclature and classification - nitro hydrocarbons -
structure. Tautomerism of nitroalkanes leading to acid and keto form.
Preparation on Nitroalkanes. Reactivity - halogenation, reaction with HONO
(Nitrous acid), Nef reaction and Mannich reaction leading to Michael addition
and reduction. Aromatic Nitro hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, Preparation of
Nitrobenzene by Nitration (mechanism), from diazonium salts. Physical
properties, chemical reactivity - orientation of electrophonic substitution on
nitrobenzene. Reduction reaction of Nitrobenzenes in different media. Amines
(Aliphatic and Aromatic): Nomenclature, classification into 1°, 2°, 3° Amines
and Quaternary ammonium compounds. Preparative methods - 1. Ammonolysis of alkyl
halides 2. Gabriel synthesis 3. Hoffman's bromamide reaction (mechanism).
Reduction of Amides and Schmidt reraction.
Chemical Properties: (a) Alkylation (b) Acylation (c) Carbylamine
reaction (d) Hinsberg separation. 5. Reaction with Nitrous acid of 1°, 2°, 3°
(Aliphatic and aromatic amines). Electophilic substitutions of Aromatic amines -
Bromination and Nitration, oxidation of aryl and 3° Amines, diazotization. 6.
Diazonium salts: Preparation with mechanism. Synthetic importance - (a)
Replacement of diazonium group by - OH, X (Cl) - Sandmeyer and Gatterman
reaction, by fluorine (Schiemann's reaction), by iodine, CN, NO2, H and aryl
groups. Coupling Reraction of diazonium. (i) with phenols (ii) with anilines.
Reduction to phenyl hydrazines.
14. Heterocyclic Compounds
Introduction and definition: Simple 5 membered ring Compounds with one hetero
atom Ex. Furan, Thiophene and pyrrole. Importance of ring systems - presence in
important Natural products like hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Numbering the ring
systems as per Greek letters and Numbers. Aromatic character - 6- electron
system (Four - electrons from two double bonds and a pair of non bonded
electrons from the hetero-atom). Tendency to undergo substitution reactions.
Introduction: Classification and nomenclature - classification into mono,
oligo and polysacchrides into pentoses, hexoses etc. into aldoeses and ketoses.
Monosaccharides: All discussion to be confined to (+) glucose as an example of
aldo hexoses and (-) fructose as example of ketohexoses. Chemical properties and
structural elucidation: Evidences for straight chain pentahydroxy aldehyde
structure (Acetylation, reducation to n- hexane, cyanohydrin formation,
reduction of Tollen's and Fehling's reagents and oxidation to gluconic and
saccharic acids). Number of optically active, isomers possible for the
structure, configuration of glucose based on D-glyceraldehydes as primary
standard (No proof for configuration is required). Evidence for cyclic structure
of glucose (some negative aldehyde tests and mutarotation).
Cyclic structure of glucose: Proposition of cyclic structure (Pyranose
structure, anomeric Carbon and anomers). Proof for the ring size (methylaltion,
hydrolysis oxidation reactions). Different ways of writing pyranose structure
(Haworth formula and chair conformational formula). Structure of fructose:
Evidence of 2 - ketohexose structure (formation of penta acetate, formation of
cyanohydrin its hydrolysis and reduction by HI to give 2-Carboxy-n-hexane Same
osazone formation from glucose and fructose, Hydrogen bonding in osazones,
cyclic structure for fructose (Furanose structure and Haworth formula). Inter
Conversion of Monosaccharides: Aldopentose to aldo hexose - eg: Arabinose to
D-glucose, D-mannose (kiliani - Fischer method). Epimers, Epimerisation. Lobry
debruyn van Ekenstein rearrangement. Aldohexose - Aldopentose eg: D-g!ucose to
D-arabinose by Ruff's degradation. Aldohexose (+) (glucose) to ketohexose (-)
(fructose) and Ketochexose (Fructose) to aldohexose (Glucose).
16. Amino acids and proteins
Introduction: Definition of Amino Acids, classification of Amino acids into
alpha, beta and gama amino acids. Natural and essential amino acids - definition
and examples, classification of alpha amino acids into acidic, basic and neutral
amino acids with examples. Methods of synthesis: General methods of syntheis of
alpha amino acids (specific examples - Glycine, Alanine, valine and Leucene) by
following methods: (a) From halogenated Carboxylic acid (b) Malonic ester
syntheis (c) strecker's synthesis. Physical properties: Optical activity of
naturally occurring amino acids: L -configuration, irrespective of sign of
rotation. Zwitter ion structure - salt like character, solubility, melting
points, amphoteric character, definition of isoelectric point.
Chemical properties: General reactions reactions due to amino and carboxyl
groups - Lactams from gamma and delta amino acids by heating peptide bond (amide
linkage). Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins, peptide
17. Gaseous state
Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior, Vanderwaal's equation of state.
Critical Prenomena: PV - isotherms of real gases, continuity of state, Andhrew's
isolthems of carbon dioxide. The vander waals equation and the critical state,
Derivation of relationship between critical constants and Vander waal's
constants. Experimental determination critical constants. The law of
corresponding states, reduced education of state. Joule-Thomson effect and
inversion temperature of a gas. Liquid action of gases: i) Linde's method bases
on Joule-Thomson effect, ii) Claude's method based on Adiabatic expansion of a
18. Liquid state
Intermoie alar forces, structure of liquids (qualitative description).
Structural different between solids, liquids and gases. Liquid crystals, the
mesomorphic state: classification of liquid crystals into Semectic and Nematic,
differences between liquid crystal and solid/liquid. Application of liquid
crystals as LCD devices, lubricants and in digestion/assimilation of food.
19. Solid state:
Laws of Crystallography - (i) Law of Constancy of interfacial angles (ii) Law
of Symmetry, symmentry elements in crystals (iii) Law of rationality of indices.
Definition of space lattice, unit cell. Bravais Lattices and Seven crystal
systems. Structure of NaCI (Bragg's method and Powder method). Defects in
crystals: Stoichiometric and Non-stoichiometric defects. Band theory of
Semiconductors: Extrinsic and Intrinsic semi conductors, n-type and p-type and
their applications in photo electro chemical cells
20. Dilute Solutions and Colligative properties
Dilute solutions, colligative properties, ideal and non-ideal solution.
Raoult's law, relative lowering of vapor pressure, molecular weight
determination. Osmosis laws of somotic pressure, its measurement, determination
of molecular weight from osmotic pressure. Elevation of boiling point and
depression of freezing point. Derivation of relation between molecular weight
and elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point. Experimental
methods for determing various colligative properties. Abnormal molar mass, Van't
Hoff factor, degree of dissociation and association of solutes.
21. Colloids and Surface Chemistry
Definition of colloids, classification of colloids. Solids in liquids (sols):
Preparation and properties - kinetic, optical and electrical: stability of
colloids, protective action, Hardy-Schultz law, gold number. Liquids in liquids
(emulsions): types of emulsions, preparation and emulsifier. Liquids in solids
(gels) classification, preparation and properties, inhibition, general
applications of colloids.
Liquid - liquid mixtures - ideal liquid mixtures, Raoult's and Henry's law.
Nonideal systems. Axeotropes - HCI-H2O, ethanol-water systems. Fractional
distillation. Partially miscible liquids - phenol-water, trimethyl amine-water,nicotine-water
systems, Lower and upper consolute temperature. Effect of impurity on consolute
temperature. Immiscible liquids and steam distillation.
23. Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reaction - concentration,
temperature, pressure, solvent, light and catalyst. Concentration dependence of
rates, mathematical characteristics of simple chemical reactions - Zero order,
first order, second order, pseudo first order, half-life and mean life.
Determination of order of a reaction - differential method, method of
integration, half-life method and isolation method. Radioactive decay as first
order phenomenon. Arrhenius equation, and concept of activation energy. Theories
of chemical kinetics: effect of temperature on rate of a reaction Simple
collision theory based on hard sphere model.
Definition of thermodynamic terms: System, surroundings, types of systems,
and intensive and extensive properties. State and path functions and their
differentials. Thermodynamic process. Concept of heat and work. First law of
Thermodynamics: Statement, definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat
capacity, heat capacities at constant volume and pressure and their
relationship. Joule's law - Joule. Thomson coefficient and inversion
temperature. Calculation of w,q, dU and dH for the expansion of ideal gases
under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process. Temperature
dependence of enthalpy - Kirchoff s equation. Second law of Thermodynamic: need
for the law, different statements of the law. Carnot cycle and its efficiency,
Carnot Theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Concept of entropy, entropy
as a state function, entropy as a function of V & T, entropy as a function of P
& T, entropy change in physical processes. Gibbs and Helmholtz functions: Gibbs
function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamic quantities. A & G as
criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their advantage over
entropy change. Variation of G with P,V and T.