Maharashtra State Eligibility Test (SET)-2010
Syllabus & Sample Question : Life
1. Cell Biology : Structure
and function of cells and intracellular organelles (of both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes), Mechanism of cell division including (mitosis and meiosis) and cell
differentiation; Cell-cell interation, Malignant
growth, lmmune response : Dosage compensation and
mechanism of sex determination.
2. Biochemistry : Structure
of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds, Principles of physical chemistry,
Thermodynamics, kinetics, dissociation and association constants, Nucleic acid
structure, genetic code, replication, transcription
and translation : Structure, function and metabolism
of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, Enzymes and coenzyme, Respiration and
3. Physiology : Response
to stress, Active transport across membranes, Plant and animal hormones Nutrition
(including vitamins), Reproduction in plants, microbes, plant and animals,
Sensory responses in microbes, plant and
4. Genetics : Principles
of Mendelian inheritance, chromosome structure and function, Gene Structure
and regulation of gene expression, Linkage and genetic mapping,
Extra-chromosomal inheritance (episomes,
mitochondria and chloroplasts), Mutation, DNA damage and repair, chromosome
aberrations, Transposons, Sex-linked inheritance and genetic disorders, Somatic
cell genetics, Genome organization (in both
prokaryotes and eukaryotes).
5. Evolutionary Biology :
Origin of life (including aspects of
prebiotic environment and molecular evolution),
Concepts of evolution, Theories of organic evolution, Mechanisms of speciation,
Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium, genetic
polymarphism and selection, Origin and evolution of
economically important microbes, plants and animals.
6. Environmental biology
: Concept and dynamics of ecosystem,
components, food chain and energy flow,
productivity and biogeochemical cycles, Types of ecosystems, Population ecology
and biological control, Community structure and organization,
Environmental pollution, Sustainable
development, Economic importance of microbes, plants and animals.
7. Biodiversity and
Taxonomy : Species concept, Biological
nomenclature theories of biological classification,
Structural biochemical and molecular systematic, DNA finger printing, numerical
taxonomy, Biodiversity, characterization,
generation, maintenance and loss, Magnitude and distribution
of biodiversity, economic value, wildlife biology, conservation strategies,
1. Principles of Taxonomy as applied to the systamics and
Classification of Plant Kingdom, Taxonomic
structure, Biosystematics, Plant geography, Floristics.
2. Patterns of variation in morphology and life history in
plants, broad outlines of classification an
evolutionary trends among algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteriophytes, Principles
of palaeobotany, Economic importance of
algae, fungi and lichens.
3. Comparative anatomy and developmental morphology of
gymnosperms and angiosperms, Histochemical
and ultra structural aspects of development, Differentiation and morph genesis.
4. Androgen sis and gynogenesis, Breeding systems, Pollination
biology, structural and functional aspects
of pollen and pistil, Male sterility, Self and inter-specific incompatibility,
Fertilization, Embryo and seed development.
5. Plants and
civilization : Centres of origin and
gene diversity, Botany, utilization, cultivation and
improvement of plants of food, drug, fiber and industrial values, Unexploited
plants of potential economic value, Plants
as a source of renewable energy, Genetic resources and their conservation.
6. Water Relations : Mineral
nutrition, Photosynthesis and photorespiration : Nitrogen, Phosphorous
and Sulphur metabolism, Stomatal physiology, Source and sink relationship.
7. Physiology and biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination,
Hormonal regulation of growth and
development, Photo regulation : Growth responses, Physiology of flowering,
8. Principles of plant
breeding : Important conventional
methods of breeding self and cross pollinated
and vegetative propagated crops, Non-conventional methods, Polyploidy : Genetic
variability, Plant diseases and defensive
9. Principles of taxonomy as applied to the systematic and
classification of the animal kingdom, Classification
and interrelationship amongst the major invertebrate phyla, Minor invertebrate phyla,
functional anatomy of the non-chordates, Larval forms and their evolutionary
10. Classification and comparative anatomy of protochordates and
chordates, Origin, evolution and
distribution of chordate groups : Adaptive radiation.
11. Histology of mammalian organ systems, nutrition, digestion
and absorption, Circulation (open and closed
circular, lymphatic systems, blood composition and function), Muscular
contration and electric organs, Excretion
and osmoregulation : Nerve conduction and neurotransmitter, major
sense organs and receptors, Homeostatic (neural and hormonal), Bioluminescence,
in animals : Molecular events during
fertilization, Cleavage patterns and fate maps,
Concepts of determination, competence and induction, tot potency and nuclear
transfer experiments, Cell differentiation
and differential gene activity. Morph genetic determinants in egg
cytoplasm, Role of maternal contributions in early embryonic development,
Genetic regulation of early embryonic
development in Drosophila, Homoerotic genes.
13. Feeding, learning, social and sexual behavior of animals,
Parental care, Circadian rhythms, Mimicry,
Migration of fishes and birds, Sociobiology, Physiological adaptation at high
14. Important human and veterinary parasites (protozoans and
helminths), Life cycle and biology of
Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Ascaris, Wuchereria, Fasciola, Schistosoma and
Leishmania, Molecular, cellular and
physiological basis of host-parasite interactions.
15. Arthropods and vectors of human diseases (mosquitoes, lice,
flies, and ticks), Mode of transmission of
pathogens by vectors, Chemical biological and environmental control of anthropod
vectors, Biology and control of chief insect pests of agricultural importance,
Plant host-insect interaction, insect-pest
management, useful insects, Silkworm.
16. The law of DNA constancy and C-value paradox, Numerical and
structural changes in chromosomes, Molecular
basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution, Environment
mutagenesis and toxictiy testing, Population genetics.
17. Structure of pro and eukaryotic cells, Membrane structure
and function, Intracellular compartments,
protein sorting, secretory and endocytic pathways, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus,
Mitochondria and chloroplasts and their genetic
organisation, cell cycle, Structure and organisation
of chromatin, polytene and lamphrush chromosomes, Dosage compensation and
sex determination and sex-linked inheritance.
18. Interactions between environment and biota, Concept of
habitat and ecological niches, Limiting factors,
Energy flow, food chain, food web and trophic levels, Ecological pyramids and
recycling, Biotic community—concept,
structure, dominance, fluctuation and succession, N.P.C. and S Cycles
19. Ecosystem dynamics and management : Stability and complexity
of ecosystems, Speciation and extinction,
Environmental impact assessment, Principles of conservation, Conservation
strategies, Sustainable development.
20. Physico-chemical properties of water, Kinds of aquatic
habitats (fresh water and marine), Distribution
of and impact of environmental factors on the aquatic biota, Productivity,
mineral cycles and biodegradation in
different aquatic ecosystems, Fish and Fisheries of India with respect
to the management of estuarine, coastal water systems and man-made reservoirs,
Biology and ecology of reservoirs.
21. Structure, classification, genetics, reproduction and
physiology of bacteria and viruses (ofbacteria, plants and animals), Mycoplasma
protozoa and yeast (a general accounts).
22. Microbial fermentation, Antibotics, organic acids and
vitamins, Microbes in decomposition and
recycling processes, Symbiotic and asymbiotic N2 - fixation, Microbiology of
water, air, soil and sewage, Microbes as
pathological agents in plants, animals and man, General design and
applications of a biofermenter,Biofertilizer.
23. Antigen : Structure
and functions of different clauses of immunoglobulins, Primary and secondary
immune response, Lymphocytes and accessory cells, Humoral and cell
mediatedimmunity, MHC, Mechanism of immune response and generation of
immunotogical diversity;Genetic control of immune response, Effector mechanism,
Application of immunological techniques.
24. Enzyme kinetics (negative and positive cooperativity),
Regulation of enzymatic activity, Active sites,
Coenzymes, Activators and inhibitors, isoenzymes, allosteric enzymes, Ribozyme
25. Van der Waal’s electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and
hydrophobic interactions, Primary structure of
proteins and nucleic acids, Conformation of proteins and polypeptides
(secondary, tertiary, quanternary and domain
structure), Reverse turns and Ramachandran plot, Structural polymorphism
of DNA, RNA and three-dimensional structure of tRNA, Structure carbohydrates,
polysaccharides, glycoproteins and peptido-glycans,
Helix-coil transition, Energy terms in biopolymer
26. Glycolysis and TCA cycle, Glycogen breakdown and synthesis,
Gluconeogenesis, interconversion of hexoses
and pentoses, Amino acid metabolism, Coordinated control of metabolism, Biosynthesis
of purines and pyrimidines, Oxidation of lipids, Biosynthesis of fatty
acids,Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols.
27. Energy metabolism (concept of free energy), Thermodynamic
principles in biology, Energy rich bonds,
Weak interactions, Coupled reactions and oxidative phosphorylations, Group
tranfers, Biological energy tranducers,
28. Fine structure of gene, Eukaryotic genome organization
(structure of chromatin, coding and non-coding
sequences, satellite DNA), DNA damage and repair, DNA replication, amplification
29. Organization of transcriptional units : Mechanism of
transcription of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, RNA
processing (capping, polyadenylation, splicing, introns and exons),
Ribonucleoproteins, Structure of mRNA,
Genetic code and protein synthesis.
30. Regulation of gene expression in pro-and eukaryotes,
Attenuation and antitermination, Operon concept,
DNA methylation, Heterochromatization, Transposition, Regulatory sequences and
transcription factors, Environmental regulation of
31. Biochemistry and molecular biology of cancer, Oncogenes,
Chemical carcinogenesis, Genetic and
metabolic disorders, Harmonal imbalances, Drug metabolism and detoxification,
Genetic load and genetic counselling.
32. Lysogeny and lytic cycle in
bacteriophages, Bacterial transformation, Host cell restriction, Trasduction,
Complementation, Molecular recombination, DNA ligases, Topoisomerases, gyrases,
Methylases, Nucleases, Restriction endonucleases, Plasmids and bacteriophage
based vectors for cDNA and genomic
33. Principles and methods of genetic engineering and Gene
targeting, Application in agriculture, health and
34. Cell and tissue culture in plants and animals, Primary
culture, Cell line, Cell clones, Callus cultures, Somaclonal
variation, Micropropogation, Somatic embryogenesis, Haploidy, Protoplast fusion
and somatic hybridization, Cybrids, Gene
transfer methods in plants and in animals, Transgenic biology, Allopheny,
Artificial seeds, Hybridoma technology.
35. Structure and organisation of membranes, Glyconjugates and
proteins in membrane systems, ion transport/Na/KATPase/Molecular
basis of signal transduction in bacteria, plants and animals, Modelmembranes,
36. Principles and application of light, phase contrast,
fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy,
Cytophotometry and flow cytometry, fixation and staining.
37. Principles and applications of gel-filtration, ion-exchange
and affinity chromatography, Thin layer and gas
chromatography, High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), Electrophoresis and
electrofocussing, Ultracentrifugation (velocity and
38. Principles and techniques of nucleic acid hybridization and
Cot curves, Sequencing of proteins and nucleic
acids, Southern, Northern and South-Western blotting techniques, Polymerase
chain reaction, Methods for measuring
nucleic acid and protein interactions.
39. Principles of biophysical methods used for analysis of
biopolymer structure, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence,
UV, ORD/CD Visible, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, Hydrodynamic methods, Atomic
absorption and plasma emission spectroscopy.
40. Principles and applications of tracer techniques in biology,
Radiation dosimetry, Radioactive isotopes
and half life of isotopes, Effect of radiation on biological system,
Autoradiography; Cerenkov radiation; Liquid
41. Principles and practice of statistical methods in biological
research, samples and populations;Basic statistics—average, statistics of
dispersion, coefficient of variation, Standard error,Confidence limits,
Probability distributions (biomial, poisson and normal); Tests of
statisticalsignificance, Simple correlation of regression, Analysis of variance.
1. X chromosome
heterochomatinization in mammalian female has been found to involve
(A) cytosine methylamine (B) DNA rearrangements
(C) activation of transposable sequences (D) protein deactivation
2. One of the following is an ex-situ
method of conservation of plants.
(A) Biosphere reserve (B) Wildlife sanctuary
(C) Protected forest (D) Micro propagation
1. Discuss the following :
(A) Role of phytochrome in plants
(B) Hormonal regulation of senescence of leaves.
2. Give a reaction each involving the transfer of Pi and AMP
3. State the Hardy Weinberg principle. Give its utility. How can
one check a population to find out if it has
reached H-W equilibrium ?
4. Describe in brief the stages in primary succession in an