(Syllabus) VITEEE : B.Tech. Degree Programmes
VIT University , Vellore
:: Syllabus ::
Part – 1  Physics
1. Electrostatics

Charges and their conservation; Coulomb’s lawforces between two point electric charges  Forces between multiple electric chargessuperposition principle.

Electric field – electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field intensity due to a dipole  behaviour of a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric potential  potential differenceelectric potential due to a point charge and dipoleequipotential surfaces – electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges.

Electric fluxGauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to (i) infinitely long straight wire (ii) uniformly charged infinite plane sheet (iii) two parallel sheets and (iv) uniformly charged thin spherical shell (inside and outside)

Electrostatic inductioncapacitor and capacitance – dielectric and electric polarisation – parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium – applications of capacitor – energy stored in a capacitor  Capacitors in series and in parallel – action of points – Lightning arrester – Van de Graaff generator.
2. Current Electricity

Electric Current – flow of charges in a metallic conductor – drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current.

Ohm’s law, electrical resistance  VI characteristics – electrical resistivity and conductivityclassification of materials in terms of conductivity – Carbon resistors – colour code for carbon resistors  combination of resistors – series and parallel – temperature dependence of resistance – internal resistance of a cell – potential difference and emf of a cell  combinations of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchoff ’s law – illustration by simple circuits – Wheatstone’s Bridge and its application for temperature coefficient of resistance measurement  Metrebridge  special case of Wheatstone bridge  Potentiometer principle  comparing the emf of two cells.
3. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism

Magnetic effect of electric current – Concept of magnetic field  Oersted’s experiment – BiotSavart lawMagnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and circular coil –

Tangent galvanometer – construction and working – Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid – magnetic field lines.

Ampere’s circuital law and its application.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic field and electric field – cyclotron – Force on current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field – Forces between two parallel current carrying conductors  definition of ampere.

Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field  moving coil galvanometer
– conversion to ammeter and voltmeter
– current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
 Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. 
Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples – Electromagnets – Permanent Magnets
4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic induction  Faraday’s law  induced emf and current  Lenz’s law.

Self induction  Mutual induction  self inductance of a long solenoid  mutual inductance of two long solenoids.

Methods of inducing emf  (i) by changing magnetic induction (ii) by changing area enclosed by the coil and (iii) by changing the orientation of the coil (quantitative treatment).

AC generator  commercial generator. (Single phase, three phase).

Eddy current  applications  transformer  long distance transmission.

Alternating current  measurement of ACAC circuit with resistance  AC circuit with inductor  AC circuit with capacitor  LCR series circuit  Resonance and Q  factor  power in AC circuits.
5. Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of lightblue colour of sky and reddish appearances of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
6. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics  Electromagnetic spectrumradio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays.

Wavefront and Huygens’s principle  Reflection, total internal reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts

Interference  Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width  coherent source  interference of lightFormation of colours in thin films  analytical treatment  Newton’s rings. Diffraction  differences between interference and diffraction of light diffraction grating.

Polarisation of light waves  polarisation by reflection  Brewster’s law  double refraction  nicol prism  uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids  rotatory polarisation  polarimeter.
7. Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Atomic structure – discovery of the electron – specific charge

(Thomson’s method) and charge of the electron (Millikan’s oil drop method) – alpha scattering – Rutherford’s atom model.

Bohr’s model – energy quantization – energy and wave number expressions – Hydrogen spectrum – energy level diagrams – sodium and mercury spectra – excitation and ionization potentials.

Nuclear properties  nuclear radii, masses, binding energy, density, charge  isotopes, isobars and isotones  nuclear mass defect  binding energy  stability of nuclei  Bainbridge mass spectrometer.

Nature of nuclear forces  Neutron  discovery  properties  artificial transmutation  particle accelerator.

Radioactivity  alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their propertiesα decay, β decay and γ decay  Radioactive decay law  half life  mean life  artificial radioactivity  radio isotopes  effects and uses  Geiger  Muller counter.

Radio carbon dating  biological radiation hazards.

Nuclear fission  chain reaction  atom bomb  nuclear reactor  nuclear fusion  Hydrogen bomb  cosmic rays  elementary particles.
8. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Photoelectric effect  Light waves and photons  Einstein’s photoelectric equation  laws of photoelectric emission  particle nature of light  photo cells and their applications.

Matter waves  wave nature of particles – de Broglie relation – de Broglie wavelength of an electron –Davisson Germer experiment – electron microscope
9. Semiconductor Devices and their Applications

Semiconductor theory  energy band in solids (Qualitative ideas only)  difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors based on band theory  semiconductor doping  Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors.

Formation of PN Junction  Barrier potential and depletion layer PN Junction diode  Forward and reverse bias characteristics  diode as a rectifier  Zener diodeZener diode as a voltage regulator  LED  seven segment display  LCD.

Junction transistors  characteristics  transistor as a switch  transistor as an amplifier  transistor as an oscillator .

Logic gates  NOT, OR, AND, EXOR using discrete components  NAND and NOR gates as universal gates Laws and theorems of Boolean algebra
Part – II  Chemistry
1. Atomic Structure:

Bohr’s atomic modelSommerfeld’s extension of atomic structure; Electronic configuration and Quantum numbers; Shapes of s,p,d,f orbitals  Pauli’s exclusion principle  Hund’s Rule of maximum multiplicity Aufbau principle. Emission spectrum, absorption spectrum, line spectra and band spectra; Hydrogen spectrum – Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brakett and Pfund series; deBroglie’s theory; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle – wave nature of electron – Schrodinger wave equation (No derivation). Eigen values and eigen functions. Hybridization of atomic orbitals involving s,p,d orbitals.
2. p,d and f – Block Elements:

pblock elements – Phosphorous compounds; PCl3, PCl5 – Oxides. Hydrogen halides, Inter halogen compounds. Xenon fluoride compounds. General Characteristics of d – block elements – Electronic Configuration – Oxidation states of first row transition elements and their colours. Occurrence and principles of extraction: Copper, Silver, Gold and Zinc. Preparation, properties of CuSO4, AgNO3 and K2Cr2O7.

Lanthanides – Introduction, electronic configuration, general characteristics, oxidation state – lanthanide contraction, uses, brief comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides.
3. Coordination Chemistry and Solid State Chemistry

Introduction – Terminology in coordination chemistry – IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Isomerism, Geometrical isomerism in 4coordinate, 6coordinate complexes. Theories on coordination compounds – Werner’s theory (brief), Valence Bond theory. Uses of coordination compounds. Bioinorganic compounds (Haemoglobin and chlorophyll).

Lattice – unit cell, systems, types of crystals, packing in solids; Ionic crystals – Imperfections in solids – point defects. XRay diffraction – Electrical Property, Amorphous solids (elementary ideas only).
4. Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Kinetics

I and II law of thermodynamics – spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, entropy, Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and chemical equilibrium – significance of entropy.

Law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle, applications of chemical equilibrium. Rate expression, order and molecularity of reactions, zero order, first order and pseudo first order reaction – half life period. Determination of rate constant and order of reaction . Temperature dependence of rate constant – Arrhenius equation, activation energy.
5. Electrochemistry

Theory of electrical conductance; metallic and electrolytic conductance. Faraday’s laws – theory of strong electrolytes – Specific resistance, specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductance – Variation of conductance with dilution – Kohlrausch’s Law – Ionic product of water, pH and pOH – buffer solutions – use of pH values. Cells – Electrodes and electrode potentials – construction of cell and EMF values, Fuel cells, Corrosion and its prevention.
6. Isomerism in Organic Compounds

Definition, Classification – structural isomerism, stereo isomerism – geometrical and optical isomerism. Optical activity chirality – compounds containing chiral centres – R – S notation, D – L notation.
7. Alcohols and Ethers

Nomenclature of alcohols – Classification of alcohols  distinction between 10, 20 and 30 alcohols – General methods of preparation of primary alcohols, properties. Methods of preparation of dihydric alcohols: Glycol – Properties – Uses. Methods of preparation of trihydric alcohols  Properties – Uses. Aromatic alcohols – preparation and properties of phenols and benzyl alcohol. Ethers – Nomenclature of ethers – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ethers  Properties – Uses. Aromatic ethers – Preparation of Anisole – Uses.
8. Carbonyl Compounds

Nomenclature of carbonyl compounds – Comparison of aldehydes and ketones. General methods of preparation of aldehydes – Properties – Uses. Aromatic aldehydes – Preparation of benzaldehyde – Properties and Uses. Ketones – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ketones (acetone) – Properties – Uses. Aromatic ketones – preparation of acetophenone – Properties – Uses, preparation of benzophenone – Properties. Name reactions; Clemmenson reduction, Wolff – Kishner reduction, Cannizzaro reaction, Claisen Schmidt reaction, Benzoin Condensation, aldol Condensation. Preparation and applications of Grignard reagents.
9. Carboxylic Acids and their derivatives

Nomenclature – Preparation of aliphatic monobarboxylic acids – formic acid – Properties – Uses. Monohydroxy mono carboxylic acids; Lactic acid – Synthesis of lactic acid. Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids; Preparation of oxalic and succinic acid. Aromatic acids; Benzoic and Salicylic acid – Properties – Uses. Derivatives of carboxylic acids; acetyl chloride (CH3COCl) – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Preparation of acetamide, Properties – acetic anhydride – Preparation, Properties. Preparation of esters – methyl acetate – Properties.
10. Organic Nitrogen Compounds

Aliphatic nitro compounds – Preparation of aliphatic nitroalkanes – Properties – Uses. Aromatic nitro compounds – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds. Amines; aliphatic amines – General methods of preparation – Properties – Distinction between 10, 20 and 30 amines. Aromatic amines – Synthesis of benzylamine – Properties, Aniline – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic amine. Aliphatic nitriles – Preparation – properties – Uses. Diazonium salts – Preparation of benzene diazoniumchloride – Properties.
11. Biomolecules

Carbohydrates – distinction between sugars and non sugars, structural formulae of glucose, fructose and sucrose, with their linkages, invert sugar – definition, examples of oligo and polysaccharides,

Amino acids – classification with examples, Peptidesproperties of peptide bond,

Lipids  Definition, classification with examples, difference between fats, oils and waxes.
Part – III  Mathematics
1. Applications of Matrices and Determinants

Adjoint, inverse – properties, computation of inverses, solution of system of linear equations by matrix inversion method.

Rank of a matrix – elementary transformation on a matrix, consistency of a system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule, nonhomogeneous equations, homogeneous linear system and rank method.
2. Complex Numbers

Complex number system  conjugate, properties, ordered pair representation.

Modulus – properties, geometrical representation, polar form, principal value, conjugate, sum, difference, product, quotient, vector interpretation, solutions of polynomial equations, De Moivre’s theorem and its applications.

Roots of a complex number  nth roots, cube roots, fourth roots.
3. Analytical Geometry of two dimensions

Definition of a conic – general equation of a conic, classification with respect to the general equation of a conic, classification of conics with respect to eccentricity.

Equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms and general forms Directrix, Focus and Latus rectum  parametric form of conics and chords.  Tangents and normals – cartesian form and parametric form equation of chord of contact of tangents from a point (x1 ,y1 ) to all the above said curves.

Asymptotes, Rectangular hyperbola – Standard equation of a rectangular hyperbola.
4. Vector Algebra

Scalar Product – angle between two vectors, properties of scalar product, applications of dot products. vector product, right handed and left handed systems, properties of vector product, applications of cross product.

Product of three vectors – Scalar triple product, properties of scalar triple product, vector triple product, vector product of four vectors, scalar product of four vectors.
5. Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions

Direction cosines – direction ratios  equation of a straight line passing through a given point and parallel to a given line, passing through two given points, angle between two lines.

Planes – equation of a plane, passing through a given point and perpendicular to a line, given the distance from the origin and unit normal, passing through a given point and parallel to two given lines, passing through two given points and parallel to a given line, passing through three given noncollinear points, passing through the line of intersection of two given planes, the distance between a point and a plane, the plane which contains two given lines (coplanar lines), angle between a line and a plane.

Skew lines  shortest distance between two lines, condition for two lines to intersect, point of intersection, collinearity of three points.

Sphere – equation of the sphere whose centre and radius are given, equation of a sphere when the extremities of the diameter are given.
6. Differential Calculus

Derivative as a rate measurer  rate of change, velocity, acceleration, related rates, derivative as a measure of slope, tangent, normal and angle between curves, maxima and minima.

Mean value theorem  Rolle’s Theorem, Lagrange Mean Value Theorem, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series, L’ Hospital’s Rule, stationary points, increasing, decreasing, maxima, minima, concavity, convexity and points of inflexion.

Errors and approximations – absolute, relative, percentage errors  curve tracing, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem.
7. Integral Calculus and its Applications

Simple definite integrals – fundamental theorems of calculus, properties of definite integrals.

Reduction formulae – reduction formulae for ∫ sin n x dx and ∫ cosn x dx , Bernoulli’s formula.

Area of bounded regions, length of the curve.
8. Differential Equations

Differential equations  formation of differential equations, order and degree, solving differential equations (1st order), variables separable, homogeneous and linear equations.

Second order linear differential equations  second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, finding the particular integral if f (x) = emx, sin mx, cos mx, x, x2.
9. Probability Distributions

Probability – Axioms – Addition law  Conditional probability – Multiplicative law  Baye’s Theorem  Random variable  probability density function, distribution function, mathematical expectation, variance

Theoretical distributions  discrete distributions, Binomial, Poisson distributions Continuous distributions, Normal distribution.
10. Discrete Mathematics

Mathematical logic – logical statements, connectives, truth tables, logical equivalence, tautology, contradiction. Groupsbinary operations, semigroups, monoids, groups, order of a group, order of an element, properties of groups.
Part – IV Biology
1. Taxonomy

Linnaean system of classification and Binomial nomenclature; history and types of classification; status of bacteria and viruses; classification of angiosperms up to subclass level (Bentham and Hooker’ systems); salient features of nonchordates up to phyla levels and chordates up to class levels.
2. Evolution

Modern concepts of organic evolution, evidences of organic evolution (Fossil records and biochemical evidences). Darwinism and neo – Darwinism, Lamarckism, NeoLamarckism, sources of variation, mutation, recombination, gene flow  genetic drift, migration, natural selection. Origin and concepts of species: speciation and isolation (geographical premating and postmating or post zygotic), adaptive radiations; human evolution.
3. Cell and Molecular Biology

Discovery of cell, cell as a contained unit, pro and eukaryotic cells and its ultra structure. Cell division: amitosis, mitosis and meiosis. The cell: cell wall, cell membrane and cell organelles (Plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles and centrioles)

DNA and RNA, DNA as genetic material, RNA as genetic material, replication, transcription, genetic code, translation, splicing, gene expression and regulation, protein synthesis, DNA repair.
4. Reproduction

Reproduction in Plants: asexual and sexual reproduction, vegetative propagation, sexual reproduction in flowering plants, structure of flowers, pollination , fertilization, development of seeds and fruits, apomixes and polyembryony

Human reproduction and Reproductive health: reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycles, production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy, parturition and lactation, Assisted reproductive technologies.
5 Genetics

Chromosomes: structure and types, linkage and crossing over, recombination of chromosomes, mutation, chromosomal aberration, Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal theory of inheritance, deviation from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction, incomplete dominance, codominance, complimentary gene, multiple allelism), sex determination in humans, chromosomal disorders in humans.
6. Microbiology and Immunology

Introduction to microbial diversity, history of medical microbiology, discovery of antibiotics, pasteurization, microscopes. Fungi, bacteria, virus, protozoa, algae – beneficial and harmful. Parasites and pathogens. Structure of microbes and diseases caused by them. Basic concepts of immunology: Innate and humoral immunity, lymphoid organs, lymph nodes and spleen, antibodies, vaccines, transplantation immunology, immune system disorders.
7. Biochemistry

Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins. Disaccharide, starch, glycogen, fats, cholesterol, amino acids, peptides. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary structure of proteins. Enzymes, structured and mechanism of enzyme catalysis, specificity of enzymes, co factors an coenzymes.
8. Physiology: Plant and Human

Plant Physiology: Movement of water, food, nutrients, gases and minerals. Respiration, photosynthesis (light and dark reactions), Factors affecting photosynthesis, electron transport chain (ETC), glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, hormones and growth regulators, Photoperiodism and vernalization. Human Physiology: Digestion and absorption, breathing and respiration, body fluids and circulation, excretory system, endocrine system, nervous system, skeletal and muscular systems: locomotion, and movement, growth, aging and death. Hormones; types of hormones and its functions.
9. Biotechnology and its applications

Recombinant DNA technology, applications in health, agriculture and industries; genetically modified organisms; biosafety issues, insulin and Bt cotton, transgenic plants and microbes, plant tissue culture and its application; plant growth regulators; Microbes in food processing; industrial production of microbial products, Sewage treatment, waste management and energy generation.
10. Biodiversity, ecology and environment

Ecosystems: components, types and energy flow in ecosystem; species, population and community, ecological adaptations, centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, Red data book, botanical gardens, national parks, sanctuaries and museums, environmental issues, human population explosion, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, Environmental issues and Pollution control.
11. Applied biology and human welfare

Biopesticides, genetically modified foods, biowar, biopiracy, biopattern, sustainable agriculture and medicinal plants, economic important plants (food crops, oil seeds, fiber yielding, sugar crops and timber yielding), biopharming, pesticides, organic agriculture. Population and birth control, contraception and MTP, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, cancer and AIDS. Adolescence and drug or alcohol abuse.
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