VIT University , Vellore
:: Syllabus ::
Part – 1 - Physics
Charges and their conservation; Coulomb’s law-forces
between two point electric charges - Forces between multiple electric
Electric field – electric field due to a point charge,
electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field intensity due to a
dipole - behaviour of a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric potential - potential difference-electric
potential due to a point charge and dipole-equipotential surfaces –
electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges.
Electric flux-Gauss’s theorem and its applications to
find field due to (i) infinitely long straight wire (ii) uniformly charged
infinite plane sheet (iii) two parallel sheets and (iv) uniformly charged
thin spherical shell (inside and outside)
Electrostatic induction-capacitor and capacitance –
dielectric and electric polarisation – parallel plate capacitor with and
without dielectric medium – applications of capacitor – energy stored in a
capacitor - Capacitors in series and in parallel – action of points –
Lightning arrester – Van de Graaff generator.
2. Current Electricity
Electric Current – flow of charges in a metallic
conductor – drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric
Ohm’s law, electrical resistance - V-I characteristics –
electrical resistivity and conductivity-classification of materials in terms
of conductivity – Carbon resistors – colour code for carbon resistors -
combination of resistors – series and parallel – temperature dependence of
resistance – internal resistance of a cell – potential difference and emf of
a cell - combinations of cells in series and in parallel.
Kirchoff ’s law – illustration by simple circuits –
Wheatstone’s Bridge and its application for temperature coefficient of
resistance measurement - Metrebridge - special case of Wheatstone bridge -
Potentiometer principle - comparing the emf of two cells.
3. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current and Magnetism
Magnetic effect of electric current – Concept of magnetic
field - Oersted’s experiment – Biot-Savart law-Magnetic field due to an
infinitely long current carrying straight wire and circular coil –
Tangent galvanometer – construction and working – Bar
magnet as an equivalent solenoid – magnetic field lines.
Ampere’s circuital law and its application.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic field and
electric field – cyclotron – Force on current carrying conductor in a
uniform magnetic field – Forces between two parallel current carrying
conductors - definition of ampere.
Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform
magnetic field - moving coil galvanometer
– conversion to ammeter and voltmeter
– current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
- Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Para, dia and ferro-magnetic substances with examples –
Electromagnets – Permanent Magnets
4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
Electromagnetic induction - Faraday’s law - induced emf
and current - Lenz’s law.
Self induction - Mutual induction - self inductance of a
long solenoid - mutual inductance of two long solenoids.
Methods of inducing emf - (i) by changing magnetic
induction (ii) by changing area enclosed by the coil and (iii) by changing
the orientation of the coil (quantitative treatment).
AC generator - commercial generator. (Single phase, three
Eddy current - applications - transformer - long distance
Alternating current - measurement of AC-AC circuit with
resistance - AC circuit with inductor - AC circuit with capacitor - LCR
series circuit - Resonance and Q - factor - power in AC circuits.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula.
Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical
fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens
maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses
in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of
light through a prism. Scattering of light-blue colour of sky and reddish
appearances of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
6. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics -
Electromagnetic spectrum-radio, microwaves, infra-red, visible,
ultra-violet, X rays, gamma rays.
Wavefront and Huygens’s principle - Reflection, total
internal reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using
Interference - Young’s double slit experiment and
expression for fringe width - coherent source - interference of
light-Formation of colours in thin films - analytical treatment - Newton’s
rings. Diffraction - differences between interference and diffraction of
light- diffraction grating.
Polarisation of light waves - polarisation by reflection
- Brewster’s law - double refraction - nicol prism - uses of plane polarised
light and Polaroids - rotatory polarisation - polarimeter.
7. Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Atomic structure – discovery of the electron – specific
(Thomson’s method) and charge of the electron (Millikan’s
oil drop method) – alpha scattering – Rutherford’s atom model.
Bohr’s model – energy quantization – energy and wave
number expressions – Hydrogen spectrum – energy level diagrams – sodium and
mercury spectra – excitation and ionization potentials.
Nuclear properties - nuclear radii, masses, binding
energy, density, charge - isotopes, isobars and isotones - nuclear mass
defect - binding energy - stability of nuclei - Bainbridge mass
Nature of nuclear forces - Neutron - discovery -
properties - artificial transmutation - particle accelerator.
Radioactivity - alpha, beta and gamma radiations and
their properties-α -decay, β -decay and γ -decay - Radioactive decay law -
half life - mean life - artificial radioactivity - radio isotopes - effects
and uses - Geiger - Muller counter.
Radio carbon dating - biological radiation hazards.
Nuclear fission - chain reaction - atom bomb - nuclear
reactor - nuclear fusion - Hydrogen bomb - cosmic rays - elementary
8. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Photoelectric effect - Light waves and photons -
Einstein’s photoelectric equation - laws of photoelectric emission -
particle nature of light - photo cells and their applications.
Matter waves - wave nature of particles – de Broglie
relation – de Broglie wavelength of an electron –Davisson Germer experiment
– electron microscope
9. Semiconductor Devices and their Applications
Semiconductor theory - energy band in solids (Qualitative
ideas only) - difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors based
on band theory - semiconductor doping - Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Formation of P-N Junction - Barrier potential and
depletion layer- P-N Junction diode - Forward and reverse bias
characteristics - diode as a rectifier - Zener diode-Zener diode as a
voltage regulator - LED - seven segment display - LCD.
Junction transistors - characteristics - transistor as a
switch - transistor as an amplifier - transistor as an oscillator .
Logic gates - NOT, OR, AND, EXOR using discrete
components - NAND and NOR gates as universal gates -Laws and theorems of
Part – II - Chemistry
1. Atomic Structure:
Bohr’s atomic model-Sommerfeld’s extension of atomic
structure; Electronic configuration and Quantum numbers; Shapes of s,p,d,f
orbitals - Pauli’s exclusion principle - Hund’s Rule of maximum
multiplicity- Aufbau principle. Emission spectrum, absorption spectrum, line
spectra and band spectra; Hydrogen spectrum – Lyman, Balmer, Paschen,
Brakett and Pfund series; deBroglie’s theory; Heisenberg’s uncertainty
principle – wave nature of electron – Schrodinger wave equation (No
derivation). Eigen values and eigen functions. Hybridization of atomic
orbitals involving s,p,d orbitals.
2. p,d and f – Block Elements:
p-block elements – Phosphorous compounds; PCl3, PCl5 –
Oxides. Hydrogen halides, Inter halogen compounds. Xenon fluoride compounds.
General Characteristics of d – block elements – Electronic Configuration –
Oxidation states of first row transition elements and their colours.
Occurrence and principles of extraction: Copper, Silver, Gold and Zinc.
Preparation, properties of CuSO4, AgNO3 and K2Cr2O7.
Lanthanides – Introduction, electronic configuration,
general characteristics, oxidation state – lanthanide contraction, uses,
brief comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides.
3. Coordination Chemistry and Solid State Chemistry
Introduction – Terminology in coordination chemistry –
IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Isomerism,
Geometrical isomerism in 4-coordinate, 6-coordinate complexes. Theories on
coordination compounds – Werner’s theory (brief), Valence Bond theory. Uses
of coordination compounds. Bioinorganic compounds (Haemoglobin and
Lattice – unit cell, systems, types of crystals, packing
in solids; Ionic crystals – Imperfections in solids – point defects. X-Ray
diffraction – Electrical Property, Amorphous solids (elementary ideas only).
4. Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical
I and II law of thermodynamics – spontaneous and non
spontaneous processes, entropy, Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and
chemical equilibrium – significance of entropy.
Law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle,
applications of chemical equilibrium. Rate expression, order and
molecularity of reactions, zero order, first order and pseudo first order
reaction – half life period. Determination of rate constant and order of
reaction . Temperature dependence of rate constant – Arrhenius equation,