GATE

GATE

GATE Examination Schedule

GATE 2011 Examination will include both ONLINE and OFFLINE examinations as per the following schedule:

Type Date Time Paper Codes
Online January 30, 2011
(Sunday)
09:00 Hrs to 12:00 Hrs GG and TF
14:00 Hrs to 17:00 Hrs AE and MN
Offline February 13, 2011
(Sunday)
09:00 Hrs to 12:00 Hrs AR, BT, CE, CH, CS, ME, PH and PI
14:00 Hrs to 17:00 Hrs AG, CY, EC, EE, IN, MA, MT, XE and XL
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GATE Examination Structure

A candidate can apply for only ONE of the 21 papers listed in the table given below. In the tables given below, the columns titled 'Paper Title' and 'Section Title' provide links to the appropriate syllabus.

The choice of the appropriate paper is the responsibility of the candidate. Some guidelines in this respect are suggested below.

The candidate is expected to appear in a paper appropriate to the discipline of his/her qualifying degree. The candidate is, however, free to choose any paper according to his/her admission plan, keeping in mind the eligibility criteria of the institutions in which he/she wishes to seek admission.

Requests for change of Test paper after the submission of Application Form will not be considered.

Patterns of Qustion Papers

Pattern for Papers: AG, AR, BT, CE, CH, CS, CY, EC, EE, IN, MA, ME, MN, MT, PH and PI:

There will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks.

Q.1 to Q.25 (25 questions) carry one mark each (sub-total 25 marks). Q.26 to Q.55 (30 questions) carry two marks each (sub-total 60 marks). Questions Q.56 - Q.65 belong to General Aptitude (GA). Questions Q.56 - Q.60 (5 questions) carry 1 mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and questions Q.61 - Q.65 (5 questions) carry 2-marks each (sub-total 10 marks).

Questions Q.48 - Q.51 (2 pairs) are common data questions. and Qquestion pairs (Q.52, Q.53) and (Q.54, Q.55) are linked answer questions. The answer to the second question of the linked answer questions depends on the answer to the first question of the pair. If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is unattempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated.

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Eligibility for GATE Examination

The following categories of candidates are eligible to appear for GATE:

  • Bachelor's degree holders in Engineering/Technology/Architecture (4 years after 10+2) and those who are in the final or pre-final year of such programmes.
  • Master's degree holders in any branch of Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Applications or equivalent and those who are in the final or pre-final year of such programmes.
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Operating Systems Study Notes For GATE

Overview and History

  • What is an operating system? Hard to define precisely, because operating systems arose historically as people needed to solve problems associated with using computers.

  • Much of operating system history driven by relative cost factors of hardware and people. Hardware started out fantastically expensive relative to people and the relative cost has been decreasing ever since. Relative costs drive the goals of the operating system.
    - In the beginning: Expensive Hardware, Cheap People Goal: maximize hardware utilization.
    - Now: Cheap Hardware, Expensive People Goal: make it easy for people to use computer.

  • In the early days of computer use, computers were huge machines that are expensive to buy, run and maintain. Computer used in single user, interactive mode. Programmers interact with the machine at a very low level - flick console switches, dump cards into card reader, etc. The interface is basically the raw hardware.
    -Problem: Code to manipulate external I/O devices. Is very complex, and is a major source of programming difficulty.
    -Solution: Build a subroutine library (device drivers) to manage the interaction with the I/O devices. The library is loaded into the top of memory and stays there. This is the first example of something that would grow into an operating system.

  • Because the machine is so expensive, it is important to keep it busy.
    -Problem: computer idles while programmer sets things up. Poor utilization of huge investment.
    -Solution: Hire a specialized person to do setup. Faster than programmer, but still a lot slower than the machine.
    -Solution: Build a batch monitor. Store jobs on a disk (spooling), have computer read them in one at a time and execute them. Big change in computer usage: debugging now done offline from print outs and memory dumps. No more instant feedback.
    -Problem: At any given time, job is actively using either the CPU or an I/O device, and the rest of the machine is idle and therefore unutilized.
    -Solution: Allow the job to overlap computation and I/O. Buffering and interrupt handling added to subroutine library.
    -Problem: one job can't keep both CPU and I/O devices busy. (Have compute-bound jobs that tend to use only the CPU and I/O-bound jobs that tend to use only the I/O devices.) Get poor utilization either of CPU or I/O devices.
    -Solution: multiprogramming - several jobs share system. Dynamically switch from one job to another when the running job does I/O. Big issue: protection. Don't want one job to affect the results of another. Memory protection and relocation added to hardware, OS must manage new hardware functionality. OS starts to become a significant software system. OS also starts to take up significant resources on its own.

  • Phase shift: Computers become much cheaper. People costs become significant.
    -Issue: It becomes important to make computers easier to use and to improve the productivity of the people. One big productivity sink: having to wait for batch output (but is this really true?). So, it is important to run interactively. But computers are still so expensive that you can't buy one for every person. Solution: interactive timesharing.
    -Problem: Old batch schedulers were designed to run a job for as long as it was utilizing the CPU effectively (in practice, until it tried to do some I/O). But now, people need reasonable response time from the computer.
    -Solution: Preemptive scheduling.
    -Problem: People need to have their data and programs around while they use the computer.
    -Solution: Add file systems for quick access to data. Computer becomes a repository for data, and people don't have to use card decks or tapes to store their data.
    -Problem: The boss logs in and gets terrible response time because the machine is overloaded.
    -Solution: Prioritized scheduling. The boss gets more of the machine than the peons. But, CPU scheduling is just an example of resource allocation problems. The timeshared machine was full of limited resources (CPU time, disk space, physical memory space, etc.) and it became the responsibility of the OS to mediate the allocation of the resources. So, developed things like disk and physical memory quotas, etc.
    Overall, time sharing was a success. However, it was a limited success. In practical terms, every timeshared computer became overloaded and the response time dropped to annoying or unacceptable levels. Hard-core hackers compensated by working at night, and we developed a generation of pasty-looking, unhealthy insomniacs addicted to caffeine.

  • Computers become even cheaper. It becomes practical to give one computer to each user. Initial cost is very important in market. Minimal hardware (no networking or hard disk, very slow microprocessors and almost no memory) shipped with minimal OS (MS-DOS). Protection, security less of an issue. OS resource consumption becomes a big issue (computer only has 640K of memory). OS back to a shared subroutine library.

  • Hardware becomes cheaper and users more sophisticated. People need to share data and information with other people. Computers become more information transfer, manipulation and storage devices rather than machines that perform arithmetic operations. Networking becomes very important, and as sharing becomes an important part of the experience so does security. Operating systems become more sophisticated. Start putting back features present in the old time sharing systems (OS/2, Windows NT, even Unix).

  • Rise of network. Internet is a huge popular phenomenon and drives new ways of thinking about computing. Operating system is no longer interface to the lower level machine - people structure systems to contain layers of middleware. So, a Java API or something similar may be the primary thing people need, not a set of system calls. In fact, what the operating system is may become irrelevant as long as it supports the right set of middleware.

  • Network computer. Concept of a box that gets all of its resources over the network. No local file system, just network interfaces to acquire all outside data. So have a slimmer version of OS.

  • In the future, computers will become physically small and portable. Operating systems will have to deal with issues like disconnected operation and mobility. People will also start using information with a psuedo-real time component like voice and video. Operating systems will have to adjust to deliver acceptable performance for these new forms of data.

  • What does a modern operating system do?
    -Provides Abstractions Hardware has low-level physical resources with complicated, idiosyncratic interfaces. OS provides abstractions that present clean interfaces. Goal: make computer easier to use. Examples: Processes, Unbounded Memory, Files, Synchronization and Communication Mechanisms.
    -Provides Standard Interface Goal: portability. Unix runs on many very different computer systems. To a first approximation can port programs across systems with little effort.
    -Mediates Resource Usage Goal: allow multiple users to share resources fairly, efficiently, safely and securely. Examples:
    o Multiple processes share one processor. (preemptable resource)
    o Multiple programs share one physical memory (preemptable resource).
    o Multiple users and files share one disk. (non-preemptable resource)
    o Multiple programs share a given amount of disk and network bandwidth (preemptable resource).
    - Consumes Resources Solaris takes up about 8Mbytes physical memory (or about $400).

  • Abstractions often work well - for example, timesharing, virtual memory and hierarchical and networked file systems. But, may break down if stressed. Timesharing gives poor performance if too many users run compute-intensive jobs. Virtual memory breaks down if working set is too large (thrashing), or if there are too many large processes (machine runs out of swap space). Abstractions often fail for performance reasons.

  • Abstractions also fail because they prevent programmer from controlling machine at desired level. Example: database systems often want to control movement of information between disk and physical memory, and the paging system can get in the way. More recently, existing OS schedulers fail to adequately support multimedia and parallel processing needs, causing poor performance.

  • Concurrency and asynchrony make operating systems very complicated pieces of software. Operating systems are fundamentally non-deterministic and event driven. Can be difficult to construct (hundreds of person-years of effort) and impossible to completely debug. Examples of concurrency and asynchrony:
    -I/O devices run concurrently with CPU, interrupting CPU when done.
    -On a multiprocessor multiple user processes execute in parallel.
    -Multiple workstations execute concurrently and communicate by sending messages over a network. Protocol processing takes place asynchronously.
    Operating systems are so large no one person understands whole system. Outlives any of its original builders.

  • The major problem facing computer science today is how to build large, reliable software systems. Operating systems are one of very few examples of existing large software systems, and by studying operating systems we may learn lessons applicable to the construction of larger systems.
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CEED 2011
Common Entrance Examination for Design

Date of Examination:

  • 3rd week of January, 2011

Application Forms Availability:

  • Application Forms from IIT Mumbai: 4th week of September, 2010
  • Application Forms online: mid of 4th week of September, 2010
  • Application Forms by post: September 3rd week-October 3rd week, 2011
  • Last Date for receipt of completed application forms: 1st week of November, 2010

Objective:

Assessment of aptitude for design, involving:

  • Visual perception ability
  • Drawing skills
  • Logical reasoning
  • Creativity and communication skills

Qualifying Examination for Admission to Master of Design (M.Des) Programmes at IISc Bangalore, IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Guwahati and IIT Kanpur, and Ph.D. Programmes in Design in some of the above Institutes, for the Academic Year 2011.

Application Form:

CEED Application Form may be submitted by ONLINE (Internet based), ONLINE submission can be made by accessing the link provided on this page. The ONLINE application fee is non-refundable.

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Mechanical Engineering

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE Mechanical Engineering.

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Instrumentation Engineering

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE Instrumentation Engineering.

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Electrical Engineering

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE Electrical Engineering.

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Electronics Engineering

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE Electronics Engineering.

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Computer Science

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE CS/IT

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GATE 2010 Answer Keys | Civil Engineering

GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2010 entrance exam answer keys are launched by Made Easy Institute for IES, GATE, PSUs. See the images below to get the answer keys of GATE Civil Engineering.

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GATE 2010

GATE 2010 Cut Off Marks to Qualify

Below are the cut offs and qualifying marks of GATE 2010 entrance exam. The marks may differ according to the category.

Stream General OBC SC/ST/PH
Mechanical Engineering 25 22.50 16.67
Electrical Engineering 25.20 22.68 16.80
Computer Science/IT 25 22.50 16.67
Electronics Engineering 25 22.50 16.67
Civil engineering 25.01S 22.51 16.67
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GATE 2011 : Examination Syllabus

:: XL-Life Sciences ::


 SECTION H. CHEMISTRY (Compulsory)

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Subjects: 
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