# (Syllabus) ISAT 2012 Syllabus - Physics

## MECHANICS:

Units and Measurements: The international system of units, measurement of length, mass and time, accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Significant figures, dimension of physical quantities, dimensional formulae and equations, dimensional analysis and its applications. Motion in a straight line: position, path length and displacement, average velocity and speed, instantaneous velocity and speed, acceleration, kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion, relative velocity.

Motion in a plane: scalars and vectors, multiplication of vectors by real numbers, addition and aubtraction of ectors- graphical method, resolution of vectors, vector addition – analytical method, motion in a plane, motion in a plane with constant acceleration, relative velocity in two dimensions, projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

Laws of motion: the law of inertia, Newton’s first, second and third law of motion, conservation of momentum, equilibrium of particle, common forces in mechanics,circular motion. Work, Power and Energy: the work energy theorem, kinetic and potential energy, work-energy theorem for variable force, the conservation of mechanical energy, Power, the potential energy of a spring, collisions.

System of particles and rotational motion: centre of mass, motion of centre of mass, linear momentum of a system of particles, vector product of two vectors, angular velocity and linear velocity relations, torque and angular momentum, equilibrium of a rigid body, Moment of Inertia, theorem of perpendicular and parallel axes, kinematics and dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis, angular momentum in case of rotation about a fixed axis, rolling motion Gravitation: Kepler’s laws, universal law of gravitation, gravitation constant, acceleration due to gravity of the earth, acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth, gravitational potential energy.

## ELETROMAGNETISM:

Electric charges and Fields: Electric charges, conductors and insulators, basic properties of electric charge, Coulomb’s law, Force between multiple charges, electric field and flux, electric dipole, continuous charge distribution, Gauss’s law and its applications.

Electrostatic Potential and capacitance: electrostatic potential, potential due to a point charge and systems of charges, potential due to an electric dipole, equipotential surfaces, Potential energy in an external field, electrostatics of conductors, dielectric and polarization, capacitors and capacitance, the parallel  plate capacitor, combination of capacitors, energy stored in a capacitor. Current Electricity: electric current, electric currents in conductors, Ohm’s law, drift of electrons and origin of resistivity, resistivity and its temperature dependence, electrical energy and power, Combination of resistors (Series and Parallel) , cells, emf, internal resistance, cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge, and potentiometer.

Moving charges and Magnetism: magnetic force, motion in a magnetic field, motion in a combined electric and magnetic fields, magnetic field due to a current element and Biot-Savart law, magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop, Ampere’s circuital law, the solenoid and toroid, force between, two parallel currents, torque and current loop and magnetic dipole, the moving coil galvanometer. Magnetism and Matter: the bar magnet, the earth’s magnetism, magnetic properties  of materials, permanent magnets and electromagnets. Electromagnetic induction: magnetic flux, Faraday’s law of induction, Lenz’s law and conservation of energy, motional electromagnetic force, energy consideration: a quantitative study, inductance and AC generator. Alternating current: AC Voltage applied to a resistor, an inductor, a capacitor, Ac Voltage applied to a series LCR circuit, power in AC Circuit, LC oscillations, transformers.

## OPTICS AND WAVES:

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments: reflection of light by spherical mirrors, refraction, total internal reflection, refraction at spherical surfaces and by lenses, refraction through a prism, dispersion by a prism, some natural phenomenon due to a sunlight, optical instruments, Wave Optics: Huygens Principle, Refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens principle, coherent and incoherent addition of waves, interference of light waves and Young’s experiment, diffraction, polarisation Oscillations: periodic and oscillatory motions, simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion, force and energy in simple harmonic motion, damped SHM and forced oscillations and resonance

Waves: transverse and longitudinal waves, displacement and speed of a travelling wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, beats, Doppler Effect Dual nature of radiation and matter: photoelectric effect, wave theory of light and particle nature of light, wave nature of matter

## PROPERTIES OF MATTER, THERMODYNAMICS:

Mechanical properties of solids: elastic behaviour of solids, stress and strain, Hooke’s law, applications of elastic behaviour of materials Mechanical properties of fluids: pressure, streamline flow, Bernoulli’s principle, viscosity, Reynold’s number, surface tension Thermal properties of matter : temperature and heat, measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, calorimetry, change of state, heat transfer, Newton’s law of cooling Thermodynamics: thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, heat, internal energy and work, first law of thermodynamics, specific heat capacity, thermodynamic state variables and equation of state, thermodynamic processes, heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps, second law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, carnot engine Kinetic theory: molecular nature of matter, behavior of gases, kinetic theory of an ideal gas, law of equipartition of energy, mean free path Laboratory related questions vernier calipers, screw gauge measurements, traveling microscopes, spectrometers, meter bridges, potentiometers and Wheatstone bridge, minimum deviation measurements, refraction and reflection of light experiments etc, galvanometer, ammeter, voltmeter.