(Syllabus) CBSE: All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE)
:: SECTION: A ::
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry:
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule,
element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in
Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional
analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole
concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular
formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
Unit 2: States of Matter:
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s
law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Concept of
Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only
postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable
velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor
and van der Waals equation.
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and
of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,
amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its
applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp
voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids;
Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
Unit 3: Atomic Structure:
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of
electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom,
Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for
energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s
model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty
principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model
of atom, its important features, ?? and ??2, concept of atomic orbitals as one
electron wave functions; Variation of ?? and ??2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals;
various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum
numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin
and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau
principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration
elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of
bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment;Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its
important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals;
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular
orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital
configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order,
bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Unit 5: Chemical Thermodynamics:
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and
intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and
heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation;
Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and
DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy
change) and equilibrium constant.
Unit 6: Solutions:
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity,
mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of
solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure -
composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of
dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing
point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of
molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass,
van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
Unit 7: Equilibrium:
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid –
equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium,
constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in
chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure,
temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes,
concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br??nsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their
ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and
constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts
and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility
products, buffer solutions.
Unit 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation
number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions,
specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration:
Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of
electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half -
and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation
and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy
change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
Unit 9 : Chemical Kinetics:
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions:
concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex
reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its
units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their
characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions –
Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of
bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Unit-10 : Surface Chemistry:
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors
affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption
isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions,
classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular,
and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids -
Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and
flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
:: SECTION – B ::
Unit 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block
elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and
Unit 12: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the
extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic
methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and
Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of
Unit 13: Hydrogen:
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and
uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water;
Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a
Unit 14: S - Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group - 1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical
and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element
of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate
and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and
cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit 15: P - Block Elements:
Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical
chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups;
unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p – block elements
Group – 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric
acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group – 14
Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of
silicates, and zeolites.
Group – 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of
phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid,
phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and
oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group – 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of
sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid
(including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group – 17
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic
nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides
and oxoacids of halogens.
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of
Unit 16: D – and F – Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics,
general trends in properties of the first row transition elements - physical
properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour,
behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds,
alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit 17: Co-ordination Compounds:
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, coordination
number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and
basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance
of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in
Unit 18: Environmental Chemistry:
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and
sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green
house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful
effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone
layer - its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and
chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides
fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
:: SECTION-C ::
Unit 19: Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds
Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential
chromatography - principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems
in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20: Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry:
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p);
Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C
h C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;
Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations
carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
- Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Unit 21: Hydrocarbons:
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation,
properties and reactions.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane);
Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition
of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide
effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity;
Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel –
alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in
Unit 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens:
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond;
Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.
Unit 23: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation,
nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O
group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such
as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),
Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity
of ı - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Unit 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and
identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 25: Polymers:
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of
polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with
emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and
Unit 26: Biomolecules:
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
CARBOHYDRATES - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides
(glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides
(sucrose, lactose and maltose).
PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of ı - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides;
Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative
only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
VITAMINS - Classification and functions.NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.
Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Unit 27: Chemistry In Everyday Life:
Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins -
meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit 28: Principles Related To Practical Chemistry:
- Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection
of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl
(aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
- Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
- Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids bases and the use of
indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
- Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I.
(Insoluble salts excluded).
- Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room